Dr Chris Blanchard
B AppSci. (1st class Honours) CSU, PhD (Molecular Biology) CSIRO Plant Industry/CSU, Grad Cert (Uni Teach&Learn) CSU, Grad Cert (Uni Lead.&Man), CSU
PositionSenior Lecturer in Food Science. Program Leader - Bachelor of Health Science (Food & Nutrition)
Phone/Faxwork02 6933 2364
Dr Blanchard completed a BAppSc degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU) before undertaking a PhD in molecular biology with CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra, studying the genome of plant viruses and investigating ways to genetically engineer virus resistant plants.
On completion of his postgraduate studies Dr Blanchard worked as a molecular biologist at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research in Lausanne, Switzerland before taking up a position as a postdoctoral fellow at the CSIRO Grain Quality Research Laboratory.
Dr Blanchard joined CSU in 1998 as Lecturer in Food Science in the School of Wine and Food Science. He was promoted to the position of Senior Lecturer in Food Science and moved to the School of Biomedical Sciences in 2008.
Dr Blanchard has served on the Royal Australian Chemical Institute Cereal Chemistry Division committee since 1999 and chaired the committee for 2 years (2005-2007). In 2006 he was admitted as a Member Chartered Chemistrh of the royal Australian Chemical Institute. In 2009 he Chaired the Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference.
In 2008 Dr Blanchard was appointed as a member of the Grains Research and Development Southern Regional Panel.
My central teaching philosophy is to provide an educational experience that will provide students with the opportunity to achieve the prescribed learning goals and develop a deep understanding of the subject material as well as develop life long learning skills so that the learning experience will continue after the subject is complete. To achieve this I offer a flexible learning environment that includes psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive learning experiences to cater to the variation that exists in the way students learn. I have a particular passion for the use of new technologies to achieve this flexible learning environment.
Current subjects taught
- BMS301 Medical Science Special Topic
- BCM210 Foundations of Biochemistry
- FDS301 Food Technology
- BMS301 Medical Science Special Topic
- BMS208 Human Nutrition
- BCM302 Food and Beverage Biotechnology
2005: Faculty of Science and Agriculture Teaching Excellence Award
- Blanchard C.L. and Bowyer, P.K. (2000) Convergence of internal and distance teaching using web technologies and streaming video. Centre for enhancing teaching and learning Convergence forum. Wagga Wagga, Australia.
- Blanchard C.L. and Bowyer, P.K. (2000) Using digital video resources to teach first years. Centre for Enhancing Teaching and Learning forum on teaching first year student. Albury, Australia
- Bowyer, P.K. Richardson, D. and Blanchard C.L. and (2001) Application of digital video resources to undergraduate teaching. Centre for Enhancing Teaching and Learning Teaching expo innovations stream. Bathurst, Australia
- Bowyer, P. and Blanchard, C.L. (2003) Multimedia-based enhancement of the science of oenology in the distance learning environment. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 2003, 19(3). 323-338
- Harden T.J., Steel C.C., Blanchard C.L., Adlong W. and Meunier M. (2005). 'Distance Education Teaching and its Application to the practice of Viticulture and Winemaking'. 20th Annual Mid-America Grape and Wine Conference, Osage Beach, Missouri, February, 2005.
- Blanchard, C.L, and Adlong, W. (2005) Evaluation of the usefulness of recording lectures on an iPod. 'Bright Ideas and Evolving Evidence', Learning and Teaching Conference. Bathurst, Australia. (Poster paper)
- Blanchard, C.L. and Bowyer P.K. (2004) Enhancing student learning with digital video resources. Global conference on excellence in education and training, Singapore (Oral presentation).
During my research career I have worked on a range of research projects. These projects have focused on my areas of interest which are molecular biology and grain science:
Virology/Plant Molecular Biology Research
During my honours and PhD research projects I conducted research into the characterisation of cucumovirus subgenomic RNAs. This research resulted in a better understanding of the small RNAs associated with plant viruses.
T cell Receptor interactions
My second postdoctoral position involved studying the way that T-cell receptor proteins interact with other molecules. This involved cloning T-cell receptor genes, changing the protein sequencing by site directed mutagenesis, and testing the binding function of the mutated proteins. Using this information coupled with computer modelling, a proposed model was developed to explain how T-cell receptor molecules bind to other molecules.
The research I was conducting during my second postdoctoral position was aimed at understanding what role different wheat proteins have in controlling dough rheology. A model dough system was developed using purified flour components and these components were reconstituted in various combinations to assess the role of the different constituents. This research led to a better understanding of which proteins are important for producing high quality dough for baking.
Since commencing employment at CSU I have conducted research that aims to increase both rice yield and quality. To achieve these goals I used my primary training in molecular biology to understand, at the genetic level, what controls rice yield and quality. Some of the rice projects I have been involved in are described below.
Understanding rice starch structure
A multidisciplinary approach has been taken to develop a greater understanding of the role starch structure plays in determining rice quality. This work was mostly funded by a Rice CRC grants and a number of honours and summer scholarships. The breakthroughs made in these projects include:
- Discovery of a potential new starch synthesis gene
- New understanding of the structure of rice starch synthase I gene
- Discovery of a new form of starch debranching enzyme produced by a process called alternative splicing
- Discovery of a new form of starch branching enzyme
- An understanding of the variations that exists between granule bound starch synthase genes
- An understanding of the effect that amylose molecule length has on rice quality
The quality of rice changes rapidly during storage. This process is termed ageing. This project characterised the changes that occur during this process and discovered that different varieties age at different rates. A method has also been developed for accelerating or decelerating this process. An understanding of rice ageing will help maintain the value of rice during storage by reducing the decrease in quality caused by this ageing process.
Understanding what controls cold sterility
Cold sterility refers to the development of sterility in plants (resulting in the production of no grain) due to the effects of low temperature. It is a major cause of yield loss in the Australian rice industry and thought to be caused by a breakdown in the metabolism of sugar into pollen grains. We have recently identified a sugar metabolism enzyme that is sensitive to low temperatures. This discovery may lead to solving the cold sterility problem.
Developing ways to decrease chemical residue
Pesticides used in rice farming can impact on the sustainability of rice farming and reduce the value of rice products. One of my PhD students (Kahli Weir) discovered a bacterium that can breakdown one of the chemicals found in rice fields and has isolated the gene that produces the enzyme responsible for its degradation. This discovery may lead to an environmentally friendly commercial product for removing such chemicals from the environment.
Understanding the role of proteins in quality
Relatively little attention has been given to the role protein plays in determining rice quality. Our studies have shown that the role protein plays in determining rice functionality is important and complicated. Previously it was though that simply the amount of protein in a rice grain was the important parameter for determining the effect of protein on rice quality. Our studies have shown that the different types of proteins in a rice grain have different effects on quality. This information will be useful for breeding rice with specific protein compositions for specific qualities.
Quality assessment of rice based products
I have developed a close association with research staff at SunRice. I am currently assisting them in a range of projects aimed at assessing quality attributes of rice products. Protocols have been developed for the analysis of products including rice cakes, rice noodles and partially milled rice used in breakfast cereals
Developing new tools for discovering genes controlling quality
The future in understanding the complexities of the rice plant and improving future cultivars relies upon understanding the genome of the rice plant. One approach to improving this understanding is to systematically isolate and characterise genes from the rice genome. This area of research is called functional genomics. We have developed an improved system for systematically characterising genes using a process called DNA tagging. This new system will speed up the process of developing an understanding of the function of all the genes in the rice genome.
In addition to my major focus on rice production, I am also participate in other research projects within the university. I have been involved with supervising 2 honours students studying grapevine fungal pathogens. I have also been collaborating with a colleague to study sequence variation in abalone and other mollusc species. I supervised a PhD student studying the molecular basis of human disease. More recently my research has turned towards the understanding of the quality aspects of Australian grown pulses.
Refereed journal papers:
- Anderson, B. J., Boyce, P. M. and Blanchard, C. L. (1995). RNA 4 sequences from cucumber mosaic virus subgroups I and II. Gene. 161. (ERA: ?)
- Blanchard, C. L., Boyce, P. M. and Anderson, B. J. (1996). Cucumber mosaic virus RNA 5 is a mixed population derived from the conserved 3'-terminal regions of genomic RNAs 2, and 3. Virology 217. (ERA: A)
- Blanchard, C. L. and Anderson, B. J. (1997). RNAs 4A and 5 are present in tomato aspermy virus and both subgroups of cucumber mosaic virus. Archives of Virology 142: 1273-1283. (ERA: C)
- Blanchard, C. L. and Anderson, B. J. (1998). Detection of single nucleotide variations in viral RNA populations by primer extension analysis. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter. 16: 33-40 (ERA: C)
- Kessler B. Michielin O. Blanchard CL. Apostolou I. Delarbre C. Gachelin G. Gregoire C. Malissen B. Cerottini J.C. Wurm F. Karplus M. Luescher I.F. (1999) T cell recognition of hapten - Anatomy of T cell receptor binding of a H-2K(d)-associated photoreactive peptide derivative. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274(6):3622-3631. (ERA: A*)
- Beasley, H., Blanchard, C.L. and F. Bekes (2002) Preparative method for in vitro polymerised glutenin. Cereal Chemistry. 78(4):464-470. (Journal rank: 0.9 Impact factor: 1.087, ERA: A)
- Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S. and Blanchard, C.L. (2002). Ageing of Stored rice: Changes in Chemical and Physical Attributes. Journal of Cereal Science, 35(1): 65-78. (Journal rank: 0.96 Impact factor: 1.439, ERA: A*)
- Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S. and Blanchard, C.L (2002) Composition and Functional Properties of Rice. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 73(8):849-868. (Journal rank: 0.58 Impact factor: 0.764, ERA: B)
- Zhou, Z., Blanchard, C.L, Robards, K., and Helliwell, S. (2003) Fatty Acid Composition of Three Rice Varieties following Storage. Journal of Cereal Science. 37(3):237-335. (Journal rank: 0.96 Impact factor: 1.661, ERA: A*)
- Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S. and Blanchard, C.L. and Baxter, G. (2003) Rice ageing. I. Effect of Changes in Protein on Starch Behaviour. Starch/Stärke. (Journal rank: 0.64 Impact factor: 1.025, ERA: B)
- Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S. and Blanchard, C.L (2003) Effect of rice storage on pasting properties of rice flour. Food Research International. 36(6):625-634. (Journal rank: 0.65 Impact factor: 0.934, ERA: A)
- Bowyer, P. and Blanchard, C.L. (2003) Multimedia-based enhancement of the science of oenology in the distance learning environment. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 2003, 19(3). 323-338
- Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S., and Blanchard, C.L. (2004). The distribution of phenolic acids in rice, Food Chemistry, 87: 401-406. (Journal rank: 0.65 Impact factor: 1.535, ERA: A)
- Eamens, A.L., Blanchard, C.L., Dennis, E.S. and Upadhyaya, N.M. (2004) A bidirectional gene trap construct suitable for T-DNA and Ds-mediated insertional mutagenesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Biotechnology Journal 2: 5367. (Journal rank: 29/133, Impact Factor: 2.738, ERA: B)
- Baxter, G., Blanchard, C.L. and Zhao J. (2004) Effects of Prolamin on the textural and pasting properties of rice flour and starch. Journal of Cereal Science 40(3): 205-211. (Journal rank: 0.96 Impact factor: 2.173, ERA: A*)
- Oliver, S., Van Dongen, J.T., Alfred, S.C,. Mamun, E.A., Zhao, X., Saini, H.S., Fernandes, S.F., Blanchard, C.L., Sutton, B.G., Feifenberger, P., Dennis, E.S. and Dolferus, R. (2005) Cold-induced repression of the rice anther-specific cell wall invertase gene OSINV4 is correlated with sucrose accumulation and pollen sterility. Plant, Cell & Environment. 28 (12): 1534-1551 (Ranking 9/138 Impact Factor: 3.601, ERA: A*)
- Wang, A., Roffey, P., Blanchard, C.L., Angel, L. and Provan, P. (2006) Differentiation of Australian and New Zealand abalone based on partial sequence of mitochondrial 12s, 16s and ND2 gene sequences of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and ND2 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2). Molluscan Research. 26(2), 98-102. (ERA:C)
- Wang, A., Roffey, P., Blanchard, C.L. (2006) Partial Mitochondrial Genome of Haliotis conicopora (Vetigastropoda, Gastropoda, Mollusca). Molluscan Research 26(3): 123-127. (ERA:C)
- Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S. and Blanchard, C.L. (2007) Effect of the addition of fatty acids on rice starch properties. Food Research International. 40(2). 209-214. (Impact Factor 1.652, ERA: A)
- Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S. and Blanchard, C.L. (2007) Effect of storage temperature on cooking behaviour of rice. Food Chemistry. 105(2): 491-497 (Impact factor 2.433 ERA: A)
- Whitelaw-Weckert, M.A., Curtin, S., Huang, R., Steel C.C., Blanchard, C.L. and Roffey P. (2007) Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum acutatum isolates from grape in subtropical Australia. Plant Pathology. 56, 448-463. (Impact factor 2.198, ERA: B)
- H.T. Truong, S.Solaymani-Kohal, K.R. Baker, S. Girirajan, S.R. Williams, C.N. Vlangos, A.C.M. Smith, D.J. Bunyan, C.L. Blanchard, and S.H. Elsea (2008) Diagnosing Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Duplication 17p11.2 Syndrome by RAI1 Gene Copy Number Variation Using Quantitative Real-time PCR. Genetic Testing. 12 (1). (Impact factor: 1.18, ERA: B)
- Curtin, S.J., Watson, J.M., Smith N.A., Blanchard, C.L. and Waterhouse, P.M. (2008) Non-redundant roles of plant dsRNA-binding proteins in RNAi-like pathways. FEBS letters 582. (Impact factor appox 3.263, ERA: A)
- Girirajan, S, Truong, H.T., 2, Blanchard, C.L., and Sarah H. Elsea, S.H. (In Press) A network module for Smith-Magenis syndrome. Clinical Genetics (Impact factor: 3.41, ERA: A)
Refereed conference paper:
- Zhou, Z. Robards, K., Blanchard, C. L. and Helliwell, S. (2002). Rice Ageing and its affect on eating quality. 11th ICC International Cereal and Bread Congress. Gold Coast, Australia.
- Oliver, S.N., Blanchard, C. L. and Roffey, P. E. (2002). Investigation of DNA sequence variation in soluble starch synthase genes from different rice varieties. 11th ICC International Cereal and Bread Congress. Gold Coast, Australia.
- Eamens, A.L. and Blanchard C.L. (2002) A survey of Sequence variation in rice GBSS1 genes. 11th ICC International Cereal and Bread Congress. Gold Coast, Australia
- Blanchard C.L., Baxter G., Fitzgerald M., Williams R. and Williams P.J. (2002) The Effect of Nitrogen Fertiliser on suncracking in rice. Proceedings of the 51st Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Coogee, Australia.
- Baxter, G., Blanchard, C.L. and Zhao J. (2002) Variations in rice protein composition. Proceedings of the 51st Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Coogee, Australia.
- Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S. and Blanchard, C.L. (2002) Investigation of changes that occur in rice grains during storage. Proceedings of the 51st Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Coogee, Australia.
- Baxter, G., Blanchard, C.L. and Zhao J. (2002) The effect of changes in rice proteins on pasting of rice. Proceedings of the 52nd Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand.
- Zhou, Z. Robards, K., Blanchard, C. L. and Helliwell, S. (2002). Rice ageing during storage. Proceedings of the 52nd Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand.
- Norris, G., Blanchard, C.L., Whitelaw, E.S. and Roffey, P. (2002) Expression of Rice Starch debranching enzyme. Proceedings of the 52nd Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand.
- Whitelaw, E.S., Blanchard, C.L., Roffey, P. and Steel, C.C. (2002) Variation of starch branching enzyme I gene in different varieties of rice. Proceedings of the 52nd Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand.
- Ng, K.P., Bigarr, E. Baxter, G., Zhao J., Williams P., Agboola S. and Blanchard, C.L. (2003) Processing and textural properties of Australian rice noodles. Proceedings of the 53rd Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
- Baxter G., Boyd, A., Blanchard, C.L. and Zhao J. (2003) Changes in rice pasting by nitrogen fertilisation, a role for protein? Proceedings of the 53rd Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
- Whitelaw E. S., Li Z., Singh S., Liu Q., Upadhyaya N., Morell M., Blanchard C.L., Rahman S. (2004) Investigation of lipid synthesis in the rice grain: Modificaion of fatty acids in rice bran oil. Proceedings of the 54th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Canberra, Australia.
- Tanaja, S. E., Batten G. D., Allen H. M., Blanchard C. L., Openshaw S. R., Blakeney A. B., Fettell N. A., Cracknell R. L. Predicting Quadrumat Flour Milling Yield (2004) Proceedings of the 54th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Canberra, Australia.
- Oliver S.N. , Van Dongen J., Geigenberger P., Saini, H.S. Fernandes, S., Zhao X., Blanchard, C.L., Roffey, P.E., Dennis, E.S., and Dolferus, (2004) Cold-Induced Pollen Sterility in Rice is Associated With a Disruption in Anther Sugar Transport. R. Proceedings of the 54th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Canberra, Australia.
- Siah, S., Lauvray F-X., Aumonier, M., Blanchard, C.L., Bishop, A.G., Williams, P., Helliwell S. and K. Robards. (2004) The effect of milling degree on changes in aroma profiles of stored rice Proceedings of the 54th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Canberra, Australia.
- Chin, C., Bornert, M., Lauvray, F-X., Bishop, A., Clark, A. Ryan, D., Williams, P. and Blanchard C.L. (2005) The effect of milling degree on rice quality. Proceedings of the 55th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Sydney, Australia.
- Siah, S., Lauvray, F-X., Bishop, A., Agboola, S. Williams, P. and Blanchard, C.L. (2005) The effect of storage on twelve rice cultivars. Proceedings of the 55th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Sydney, Australia.
- Whitelaw, E.S., Liu, Q., Li1, Z., Blanchard, C.L. and Rahman, S. A FATB insertional mutant reduces palmitic acid content in rice. Proceedings of the 55th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Sydney, Australia.
- Tanaja, S.E., Batten, G.D., Fettell, N.A., Blanchard, C.L., Allen, H.M., Openshaw, S.R., Blakeney, A.B. and Cracknell, R.L. (2005) Effect of genotype and seeding rate on grain size and uniformity. Proceedings of the 55th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Sydney, Australia.
- Warnock, G.F., Aryan, A.P., Blanchard, C.L. (2006) Distribution of starch branching enzyme (Sbe-I) alleles in Australian rice cultivars. Proceedings of the 56th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Freemantle, Australia.
- Whitelaw E.S., Liu Q., Chow F., Li Z., Blanchard C.L. and Rahman S. (2006) A rice FATB insertional mutant exhibits improved growth and reduced photoinhibition at high temperatures. Proceedings of the 56th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Freemantle, Australia.
- Riviere D., Aryan A. and Blanchard C.L. (2007) Mutation analysis of rice starch synthesis genes. Proceedings of the 57th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
- Gabard, M., Williams, P., Blanchard, C.L. and Saliba, A. (2007) A comparison of instrumental and sensory evaluation of rice. Proceedings of the 57th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
- Siah, S.D., Agboola, S., Wood, J. and Blanchard (2008) Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of faba bean cultivars grown in Australia. Proceedings of the 58th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Gold Coast, Australia.
- Blanchard. C.L. Truong, L., Blakeney, A.B., O'Brien, L and Allen, H.M. (2005) Proceedings of the 55th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Sydney, Australia. ISBN (Print version: 1 876 892 12 2)
- Blanchard. C.L. Truong, L., Blakeney, A.B., O'Brien, L and Allen, H.M. (2005) Proceedings of the 55th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Sydney, Australia. ISBN (CD version: 1 876 892 12 5)
- Shaun J Curtin, Ming-Bo Wang, John M Watson, Paul Roffey, Chris L Blanchard and Peter M Waterhouse (2007) RNA Silencing and its Application in Functional Genomic, in Rice Functional Genomics: Challenges, Progress and Prospects. Upadhyaya, Narayana M. (Ed.) 2007, XXXIV, 506 p., 59 illus., Hardcover ISBN: 978-0-387-48903-2
- Blanchard. C.L. Solah, V. and Crosbie G. (2005) Proceedings of the 56th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Perth, Australia. (Print Version)
- Blanchard. C.L. Solah, V. and Crosbie G. (2005) Proceedings of the 56th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, Perth, Australia. (CD version)
Research Student Supervision
The following table summarises my research student involvement
|Andrew Eamens||PhD||Principal||Molecular Basis of Rice Quality||Completed|
|Sandra Oliver||PhD||Principal||Investigation of cold sterility in rice||Completed|
|Ella Whitelaw||PhD||Principal||Rice lipids||Completed|
|Graeme Baxter||PhD||Associate||Rice proteins and sensory quality||Completed|
|Zhong Kai Zhou||PhD||Associate||Rice Ageing||Completed|
|Kahli Weir||PhD||Associate||Bioremediation with recomb. protein||Completed|
|Aisuo Wang||PhD||Associate||Molecular taxonomy of molluscs||Completed|
|Lily Truong||PhD||Associate||Understanding Smith Magenis Syndrome||Completed|
|Shaun Curtin||PhD||Principal||Gene silencing||Completed|
|Clive Kirkby||PhD||Associate||Effect of nutrient level on formation and retention of stabilised organic matter in soils.||Feb 2007 -
|Siem Siah||PhD||Principal||Health properties of Pulses||April 2008 -
|Miriam Lei||Prof. Doc||Principal||Multiplex PCR dectaction of pathogens||Completed|
|Sandra Oliver||Honours||Principal||Variation in Rice SSS genes||Completed|
|Siong Tan||PhD||Associate||Functional properties of canola meal||October 2010 -
|Ella Whitelaw||Honours||Principal||Investigations of debranching enzymes||Completed|
|Michelle Duffy||Honours||Associate||Polymorphic sequences in abalone||Completed|
|Anthony Burge||Honours||Associate||Novel transformation techniques||Completed|
|Ru Huang||Honours||Associate||Analysis of grapevine pathogens||Completed|
|Pam Proven||Honours||Associate||Sequencing of abalone mitochondrial DNA||Completed|
|Shaun Curtin||Honours||Principal||Genetic diversity of Colletoctricum sp||Completed|
|Siem Siah||Honours||Principal||Aging characteristics of Australia Rice||Completed|
|Rebecca Cook||Honours||Associate||Mechanisms of glyphosate resistance||Completed|
|Yit Fe Chan||Honours||Associate||Understanding Smith Magenis Syndrome||Completed|
|Ben Overden||Honours||Principal||Rice seedling vigour||Completed|
|Francois Lauvray||Visitor||Principal||Effect of storage on rice aroma||Completed|
|Principal||A study of rice proteins||Completed|
|Principal||Analysis of gene variation using Hi-Res
|Principal||Sensory analysis or aged rice||Completed|
|Principal||Analysis of aroma quality||Completed|