This subject examines the basic physics, instrumentation and some clinical aspects of medical diagnostic ultrasound. The propagation of ultrasound in attenuative media, the instrumentation associated with different ultrasound modalities, common imaging artifacts, potential bioeffects, and recommendations for the safe use of ultrasound are all considered. In addition, aspects of 2D real-time greyscale imaging as applied to selected clinical areas, including abdominal, obstetric and gynaecological ultrasound, are covered. The interpretation of diagnostic information gained from the various ultrasound modalities is also given attention.
School of Dentistry and Health Sciences
Available to students in BMedRadSc(with specialisations) and BAppSc(MedImaging) Conversion
Basic ultrasound physics
Longitudinal waves, sound wave velocity, displacement- and pressure- expressions for ultrasound waves, specific acoustic impedance, wave intensity and amplitude, decibel notation, reflection and refraction of ultrasound, Snell's law, reflection and transmission coefficients, absorption, wave intensity and attenuation, the ultrasound transducer, resonance frequencies, design for pulse-echo applications, acoustic (quarter-wave) and electric matching, Q-factor, bandwidth, frequency spectrum of pulses, near- and far- fields and beam-shape dependence on frequency and crystal diameter, beam inhomogeneities, mechanical and electronic focussing of ultrasound beams.
A- and M-mode scanning
Pulse-echo ranging, average ultrasound propagation speed, basic principles of A-mode instrumentation, instrumentation controls, time-gain-compensation (TGC), axial resolution, artifacts, clinical applications, pulsed-mode, duty factor, power in ultrasound beams, ultrasound intensity descriptors (SATA, SPTA, etc.), M-mode instrumentation and applications.
Static B-mode (very briefly) and comparison to A-mode; linear-, sector-, and compound-scanning, digital scan converters, TV monitor, digital grey-scale displays, pre-processing and post-processing options, axial and lateral resolution, 2D real-time B-mode (grey-scale) scanning, frame-rates and temporal (motion) resolution, contact scanning and water-path delay scanning, grey-scale imaging artifacts, rapid mechanical probe scanning, linear and phased array electronic probe scanning, electronic focussing and steering, endosonography, instrument quality control.
Basic physics of the Doppler effect and frequency shift due to moving structures, continuous wave (CW) Doppler instrumentation, directional Doppler, clinical use of CW Doppler, range-gated pulsed Doppler instrument, spectral analysis, aliasing, Nyquist criterion, Duplex Doppler, Colour Doppler (briefly).
Bioeffects and safety of diagnostic ultrasound
Thermal effects, radiation force, stable and transient cavitation, intensity thresholds for bioeffects, diagnostic ultrasound dosimetry, safety margins, protection against ill-effects, AIUM safety recommendations.
Abdominal ultrasound - 2D real-time applications
Brief overview of sonographic terminology, sonography examinations (2D real-time) of the upper abdomen, including liver, gall bladder and bile duct, pancreas, spleen, renal, adrenal and blood vessels. Also consideration of patient appointments and patient preparation, indications and typical findings.
Obstetric ultrasound - 2D real-time applications
18 week scan, gestational analysis including foetal biometric quantities in determining gestational age ranges, symmetrical and asymmetrical intra-uterine growth retardation, typical foetal abnormalities, principle and methodology of the Biophysical Profile Scoring (BPS) technique.
Gynaecologic ultrasound - 2D real-time applications
Aspects of female pelvis scanning, uterus in cyclic changes, pathology of uterus and ovaries, key aspects of ultrasonic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancies.
The practical work will relate to a number of topics studied in lectures. Practical details will be presented in a practical manual and other handouts presented in the lab.
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The information contained in the 2018 CSU Handbook was accurate at the date of publication: August 2018. The University reserves the right to vary the information at any time without notice.