HRT308 Temperate Fruit and Nut Crop Management (8)

This subject covers the principles of growing temperate climate plants that must flower before they produce fruits and nuts. HRT308 is similar in structure and learning objectives to HRT309, but focuses on the production of horticultural crops of temperate origin. The supplied material uses APPLES (Malus domestica) as a case study crop, as most practices in most temperate horticultural crops follow those of apples, with some exceptions.  In addition, students are required to study other groups of temperate crops, including stone fruit, cane fruit and other berry crops.  Students will be required to identify individual crops to be studied as case studies in a depth similar to that supplied for apples. Students start the subject, by first developing an overview of the temperate horticultural industry, its history, distribution and trends.  There is a review of environmental, cultural and social aspects that affect the cultivation and utilisation of these crops.  Students then develop an understanding of the origins, history and scope of importance of temperate horticultural crops, their products, industries, and markets.  Using apples, students discover the influence of climate in the orchard and then develop a macro-, meso- and micro-climatic analysis for their chosen crop.  Students study the botany of apples and their chosen crops and present a botanical model of their own crops.  Flowering, fruiting and crop load control are studied in detail.  Planting material, plant establishment, orchard care and management, pruning and training, nutrition, water and canopy management are some of the important areas covered in this subject. Growth regulators and managing plants in diverse climates are other areas of study. Fruit quality and post harvest handling complete the botanical aspects of the subject.  Crop protection, specific to chosen temperate horticultural crops is also studied, briefly.  Students will learn about machinery for orchard crops and new technologies for orchards.  There is a three day residential school.

No offerings have been identified for this subject in 2019.

Where differences exist between the Handbook and the SAL, the SAL should be taken as containing the correct subject offering details.

Subject Information

Grading System



One session


School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences

Enrolment Restrictions

Students who have completed HRT222 cannot enrol into this subject.

Assumed Knowledge

It is assumed that students have a basic knowledge of botany, by having studied Botany (PSC102/BIO102) or Plants in Agriculture (AGR156) or equivalents, and plant physiology, by having studied Horticultural Science (HRT234) or Plant Physiology (PSC215) or equivalents.

Incompatible Subjects


Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this subject, students should:
  • be able to accurately describe the supply chain of horticultural crops
  • be able to accurately describe the range of fruit and nut crops used in commercial horticulture
  • be able to describe how to define the detailed growth cycle of a fruit and nut crop
  • be able to demonstrate an understanding of how to manage the flowering and development of a fruit and nut crop
  • be able to describe how to balance vegetative and reproductive growth in fruit and nut trees
  • be able to determine critical aspects of planting material
  • be able to differentiate appropriate plant establishment, orchard care and tree management aspects in orchards
  • be able to develop an integrated approach to plant nutrition and water management
  • be able to demonstrate an understanding of the principles of pruning and training management in a range of fruit and nut crops
  • be able to accurately assess the maturity of a range of fruit and nut crops
  • be able to evaluate plant protection programs for fruit and nut crops
  • be able to describe the various types of machinery used in orchards
  • be able to describe new technologies used in the production of horticultural crops.


This subject will cover the following topics:
  • developing a perspective on the factors that influence the cultivation and utilisation of temperate horticultural crops
  • understand the origin and distribution of temperate horticultural crops and their genetic diversity
  • supply chain of horticultural crops
  • climate in the orchard
  • plant morphology, growth and development
  • flowering, pollination and fruit set
  • fruit growth and development
  • crop load control
  • producing quality fruit and postharvest issues
  • soils, nutrients and water
  • planting material
  • establishment
  • orchard care and maintenance
  • crop protection
  • pests and diseases
  • machinery for orchard crops
  • new technologies in horticultural crop production
  • study of a range of temperate crops, including pome, stone, cane and other berry fruit

Residential School

This subject contains a 3 day Compulsory Residential School.

Nursery production practices for temperate horticultural crops
Field prodction practices for temperate horticultural crops
Pruning fruit and nut trees
Regulation of crop load in fruit and nut trees
Irrigation of horticultural crops
Post harvest management of fruit and nuts
Research in temperate crop culture

Special Resources

The residential school is a study tour. Accommodation and transport are arranged, although students must pay for accommodation and meals.


For further information about courses and subjects outlined in the CSU handbook please contact:

Current students

Future students

The information contained in the CSU Handbook was accurate at the date of publication: May 2019. The University reserves the right to vary the information at any time without notice.