Charles Sturt University
Charles Sturt University

Oenology Resources

We provide a wide array of publications and videos for winemakers in the areas of spoilage, micro oxygenation, and more.


Red wine production typically involves numerous chemical and biochemical transformations of grape and oak-derived compounds during:

  • yeast fermentation;
  • malolactic fermentation; and
  • wine maturation

Oxygen is an important component of the wine maturation process, contributing to chemical aging reactions. Techniques and equipment have been developed to augment the addition of oxygen into wine.

Micro-oxygenation Fact Sheet


White Wine Spoilage: The Impact of Light

The quality of white wines is determined by the chemical reactions that occur within the wine during its production. Some of these reactions are undesirable and will cause spoilage if steps are not taken to reduce their impact. Metal ions and organic acids are abundant in all wines, and, under certain conditions, can react with light or oxygen to negatively impact the wine colour or flavour.

White Wine Spoilage Fact Sheet

The Determination of Total Cu in White Wine by BCA Colorimetric Analysis

This method allows the determination of total copper concentration in white wine. It utilises the colorimetric reagent 2,2′-bicinchoninic acid dipotassium salt (BCA) to react with copper(I) and form a purpled coloured complex, which absorbs at 563 nm. During the analysis, ascorbic acid is added to aid the conversion of copper(II) to copper(I). Also, silver(I) nitrate is added in order to induce dissociation of suspended copper(I) sulfide in wine, and thereby to provide non-sulfide bound copper ions and silver(I) sulfide.

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