Charles Sturt University
Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation

Dr Mark K Greco

Dr Mark Greco

BSc (Biology), PhD (Biology-Western Sydney University), PhD (Electrical Engineering-University of Bath)

Mark is senior lecturer at CSU's School of Dentistry and Health Sciences. He has developed innovative methods for studying insects and their behaviour using non-invasive imaging which is now termed Diagnostic Radioentomology (DR). Mark is a NHMRC Expert Peer Reviewer, Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society, Patron of the ANU Apiculture Society and a member of the Australian Entomological Society. He has been involved in the management of Australian stingless bees and European Honeybees since 1991.

Mark has collaborated with the BBC televised program 'metamorphosis', the BBC Earth series and with Sir David Attenborough's three part series 'Micromonsters'. Mark was an invited, expert consultant to the UK Parliamentary and Scientific Committee meeting for 'The Importance of Bees' Tuesday 9 July 2013 at The House of Commons, London.

He has published 21 papers in internationally recognised peer reviewed journals and he currently lectures at various institutions such as the London Museum of Natural History, Royal Society. In 2008 he received the inaugural Dr Eva Crane award from the International Bee Research Association for best original research paper where DR was described as an emerging non-invasive technique for behavioural, evolutionary and classical biologists who need to study animals without harming them.

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The effects of pathogens on brain and behaviour in bees.This research will develop a more powerful, accurate and non-invasive method for diagnosing pathogen dispersal within honeybee colonies. A tracking system, using X-ray Computerised Tomography (CT), will be developed to show how and when honeybees pass food from one bee to another within the hive. Human body CT scanners will be used to visualise the inside of honeybee hives. The food will be labelled and will contain pathogen so that the 3-D X-ray imaging produced by the CT scanning can track how and when the pathogen is spread within the hive. The method will also be valuable for other insect pollinators such as bumble bees, solitary bees, ants, wasps and also for the commercially important species of termites.


  • Medical Imaging

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  • X-ray Computed Tomography
  • Micro-CT Imaging
  • Motion error correction in Computed Tomography
  • Contrast Resolution in Medical Imaging
  • Functional CT Imaging

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  • Greco M.K. and Stait-Gardener T. (2017) Applying X-ray Micro-Tomography to Learning and Memory. Biomed. Phys. Eng. Express
  • Mapp J.J.I., Fisher M.H., Atwood R.C., Bell G.D., Greco M.K., Songer S., Hunter E. (2016) Three-dimensional rendering of otolith growth using phase contrast synchrotron tomography. Journal of Fish Biology. doi:10.1111/jfb.12949.
  • Eyer M., Greco M.K., Lang J., Neumann P., V. Dietemann V. (2015) No spatial patterns for early nectar storage in honey bee colonies. Insectes Socieux.
  • Greco M.K., Duncan Bell, Lewis Woolnough, Stephen Laycock, Nick Corps, David Mortimore & Diana Hudson (2014) 3-D visualisation, printing, and volume determination of the tracheal respiratory system in the adult desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 152: 42–51. doi: 10.1111/eea.12199
  • Greco M.K., Johann Lang, Peter Gallmann, Nicholas Priest, Edward Feil, Karl Crailsheim (2013) Sugar concentration influences decision making in Apis mellifera L. workers during early-stage honey storage behaviour. Open Journal Of Animal Sciences 3: 3, 210-218.
  • Vanbergen, Adam J.; Baude, Mathilde; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Britton, Nicholas F.; Brown, Mark J F; Brown, Mike; Bryden, John; Budge, Giles E.; Carvell, Claire; Challinor, Andrew J.; Connolly, Christopher N.; Evans, David J.; Feil, Edward J.; Garratt, Mike P.; Greco, Mark K.; Heard, Matthew S.; Jansen, Vincent A. A.; Keeling, Matt J.; Kunin, William E.; Marris, Gay C.; Memmott, Jane; Murray, James T.; Nicolson, Susan W.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Paxton, Robert J.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Polce, Chiara; Potts, Simon G.; Priest, Nicholas K.; Raine, Nigel E.; Roberts, Stuart; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Shafir, Sharoni; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Stone, Graham N.; Termansen, Mette; Wright, Geraldine A. (2013) Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 11: 251–259. doi:10.1890/120126
  • Guggisberg, D., Fröhlich-Wyder, M-T., Irmler, S., Greco, M.K., Wechsler, D., Schuetz, P. (2013) Eye formation in semi-hard cheese: X-ray computed tomography as a non-invasive tool for assessing the influence of adjunct lactic acid bacteria. Dairy Science & Technology 93:135–149. doi: 10.1007/s13594-012-0105-2
  • Greco M.K., Tong J., Soleimani M., Bell D. and Schäfer M.O. (2012). Imaging live bee brains using minimally-invasive Diagnostic Radioentomology. Journal of Insect Science Volume 12 Article 89
  • Greco M.K. and Sadd B.M. (2012). Using diagnostic radioentomology for non-invasive observations of bumblebee, Bombus terrestris colonies. Journal of Insect Science Volume 12  Article 85
  • Bell D., Woolnough L., Mortimore D., Corps N., Hudson D.M. and Greco M.K. (2012). A preliminary report on the use of bench-top X-ray Micro Computerised Tomography to study the malpighian tubules of the over wintering seven spotted ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Psyche. Volume 2012, Article ID 348348, 6 pages DOI:10.1155/2012/348348
  • *           Laycock S., Bell G.D.,   Mortimore D., Greco M.K., Corps N., Finkle I. (2013). Combining X-ray Micro-CT technology and 3D printing for the digital preservation and study of a 19th Century Cantonese Chess piece with intricate internal structure. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (In Press)
  • Greco M.K., Patricia M. Welz, Mark Siegrist, Stephen J. Ferguson,  Peter Gallmann, David W. Roubik, Michael S. Engel (2011). Describing an ancient bee trapped in amber using Diagnostic Radioentomology. Insectes Sociaux. 58(4): 487-494. DOI: 10.1007/s00040-011-0168-8 
  • Greco M.K., Spooner-Hart R.N., Beattie A.C. and Holford P. (2011). Bee stocking rates for pollination of Greenhouse Capsicum by Trigona carbonaria. Journal of Apicultural Research 50(4): 299-305. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.
  • Greco M.K., Spooner-Hart R.N., Beattie A.C. and Holford P. (2011). Australian Stingless Bees Improve Greenhouse Capsicum Production. Journal of Apicultural Research.  50(2): 102-115
  • Greco M.K., Spooner-Hart R.N. and Holford P. (2010). A Stingless Bee Hive Design for a Broader Climate Range. Journal of Apicultural Research 49(3): 290-292
  • Greco, MK., Hoffmann D., Dollin A., Duncan M,. Spooner-Hart R., and Neumann, P. (2009). The alternative Pharaoh Approach: Stingless bees encapsulate beetle parasites alive. Naturwissenschaften 97(3): 319-323
  • Greco M.K., Hoffmann D., Dollin A., Duncan M., Spooner-Hart R. and Neumann, P. (2009). The Modified Pharaoh Approach: Stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive. Available from Nature Precedings <>
  • Greco M.K., Jones A, Spooner-Hart R and P Holford (2008) X-ray computerised microtomography (MicroCT): a new technique for assessing external and internal morphology of bees. Journal of Apicultural Research and Bee World 47(4): 286–291
  • Greco M.K., Bell M, Spooner-Hart R & P. Holford (2006) X-ray computerized tomography as a new method for monitoring Amegilla holmesi nest structures, nesting behaviour, and adult female activity. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 120: 71–76
  • Greco M.K., Spooner-Hart R and P. Holford (2005) A new technique for monitoring Trigona carbonaria nest contents, brood and activity using X-ray computerized tomography. Journal of Apicultural Research 44(3): 97–100

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