Charles Sturt University
Charles Sturt University

Speech acquisition studies

Speech-language pathologists frequently use data regarding children's speech acquisition. The table below includes journal articles and theses that provide data on the age typically developing children acquire consonants, consonant clusters, vowels, and tones. Inclusion in the table does not indicate endorsement or guarantee the rigor of the research.

In addition to the list below, the Speech acquisition summary page provides an overview of speech acquisition across languages. The CHILDES/BIB (http://childes.talkbank.org/bibs/) is a bibliography of research articles published before 2002 on child language acquisition (including phonological acquisition). If you know of additional studies regarding the age of acquisition of consonants, consonant clusters, vowels, or tones please contact us.

Go to languages starting with H through R   |   Go to languages starting with S through Z 

Language (dialect) Reference No. of Participants Age of acquisition data* Access Information
Afrikaans Lotter, E. C. (1974). 'n Ondersoek na die ontwikkeling van artikulasie by die Afrikaanssprekende kind met die oog op die opstel van 'n geskikte artikulasietoets [The development of articulation in Afrikaans-speaking children and the development of an appropriate articulation test]. (Master's thesis), University of Pretoria, South Africa. [in Afrikaans] 999 C, CC Thesis
Afrikaans Lotter, E. C. (1974). Die ontwikkeling van die artikulasie vermoe by die Afrikaans sprekende kind [Development of articulation by an Afrikaans child]. Tydskrif van die Suid Afrikaanse vereniging vir spraak en gehoorkunde, 33, 33-41. [in Afrikaans]  -   Journal article
Arabic 
(ﺍﻠﻌﺮﺒﯿﱠﺔ) (Jordanian)  Amayreh, M. M. (2003). Completion of the consonant inventory of Arabic. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46(3), 517-529.  60 C Journal article
Arabic 
(ﺍﻠﻌﺮﺒﯿﱠﺔ) (Jordanian) Amayreh, M. M., & Dyson, A. T. (1998). The acquisition of Arabic consonants. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41(3), 642-653. 180 C, PCC Journal article
Arabic 
(ﺍﻠﻌﺮﺒﯿﱠﺔ) (Jordanian) Amayreh, M. M., & Dyson, A. T. (2000). Phonetic inventories of young Arabic-speaking children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 14(3), 193-215. 13 C, V Journal article
Arabic 
(ﺍﻠﻌﺮﺒﯿﱠﺔ) (Jordanian) Dyson, A. T., & Amayreh, M. M. (2000). Phonological errors and sound changes in Arabic-speaking children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 14(2), 79-109. 50 C Journal article
Arabic 
(ﺍﻠﻌﺮﺒﯿﱠﺔ) (Jordanian) Hamdan, J. M., & Amayreh, M. M. (2007). Consonant profile of Arabic-speaking school-age children in Jordan. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 59(2), 55-64. 100 C Journal article
Arabic 
(ﺍﻠﻌﺮﺒﯿﱠﺔ) (Kuwaiti) Alquattan, S. (2015). Early phonological acquisition by Kuwaiti Arabic children. (Doctoral dissertation), Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.  70 C, CC, PCC Thesis
Arabic 
(ﺍﻠﻌﺮﺒﯿﱠﺔ) (Kuwaiti) Ayyad, H. S., Bernhardt, B. M., & Stemberger, J. P. (2016, in press). Kuwaiti Arabic: Acquisition of singleton consonants. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 10.1111/1460-6984.12229 80 C Journal article
Arabic 
(ﺍﻠﻌﺮﺒﯿﱠﺔ) (Kuwaiti) Ayyad, H. S. (2011). Phonological development of typically developing Kuwaiti Arabic-speaking preschoolers. (Doctoral dissertation), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 80 C, CC, V Thesis
Cantonese (粵語 (廣東話)) Edwards, J., & Beckman, M. E. (2008). Some cross-linguistic evidence for modulation of implicational universals by language-specific frequency effects in phonological development. Language Learning and Development, 4(2), 122-156.  22 C Journal article
Cantonese (粵語 (廣東話)) 
(Hong Kong) Cheung, P. (1990). The acquisition of Cantonese phonology in Hong Kong: A cross-sectional study. (Bachelor's thesis), University College London, London, UK.   155   Thesis
Cantonese (粵語 (廣東話)) 
(Hong Kong) So, L. K. H., & Dodd, B. J. (1995). The acquisition of phonology by Cantonese-speaking children. Journal of Child Language, 22(3), 473-495.   268 C, V, T Journal article
Cantonese (粵語 (廣東話)) 
(Hong Kong) To, C. K., Cheung, P. S., & McLeod, S. (2013). A population study of children's acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese consonants, vowels, and tones. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56(1), 103-122.   1,726 C, V, T Journal article
Catalan Llach Carles, S., & Palmada Félez, B. (2011). Cambios en la adquisición del sistema fonológico de las consonantes entre 4 y 5 años [Changes in the acquisition of the phonological system of consonants between 4 and 5 years]. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatria y Audiologia, 31(2), 106-112. [in Spanish]  150 C Journal article
Danish (dansk) Clausen, A. M. C., & Fox-Boyer, A. (2011). Dansk-sprogede børns fonologiske udvikling [Danish-speaking children's phonological development]. Dansk Audiologopædi, 47(4), 4-14. 80 C Journal article
Danish
 (dansk) Clausen, A. M. C., & Fox-Boyer, A. V. (2016). The phonological development of Danish-speaking children: A normative study. Manuscript in submission.   443 C, CC, V, PCC, PVC -
Drehu - French Monnin, J. (2010). Influence de la langue ambiante sur l'acquisition phonologique: Une comparaison du français et du drehu [The impact of language environment on phonological acquisition: A comparison of French and Drehu]. Université de Grenoble; Université de Nouvelle Calédonie. [in French]    C, CC Thesis
Dutch (Nederlands)  Beers, M. (1996). Acquisition of Dutch phonological contrasts within the framework of feature geometry theory. In B. Bernhardt, J. Gilbert & D. Ingram (Eds.), Proceedings of the UBC International Conference on Phonological Acquisition. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.  45 C Book Chapter
Dutch (Nederlands) (Standard) Beers, M. (1995). The phonology of normally developing and language impaired children. (Doctoral dissertation), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 58 C Thesis
Dutch (Nederlands) (Standard) Van Severen, L. (2013). A large-scale longitudinal survey of consonant development in toddlers' spontaneous speech. (Doctoral dissertation), University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium.   30 C Thesis
Dutch (Nederlands) (Standard) Van Severen, L., Van Den Berg, R., Molemans, I., & Gillis, S. (2012). Consonant inventories in the spontaneous speech of young children: A bootstrapping procedure. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 26(2), 164-187.   30 C Journal article
English Edwards, J., & Beckman, M. E. (2008). Some cross-linguistic evidence for modulation of implicational universals by language-specific frequency effects in phonological development. Language Learning and Development, 4(2), 122-156.  23 C Journal article
English (African American and American) Pearson, B. Z., Velleman, S. L., Bryant, T. J., & Charko, T. (2009). Phonological milestones for African American English-speaking children learning mainstream American English as a second dialect. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40(3), 229-244.   854 (537+317) C, CC Journal article
English (African American) Seymour, H. N., & Ralabate, P. K. (1985). The acquisition of a phonologic feature of Black English. Journal of Communication Disorders, 18(2), 139-148.  40 C Journal article
English (African American) Stockman, I. J. (1993). Variable word initial and medial consonant relationships in children's speech sound articulation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76(2), 675-689.  106 C Journal article
English (African American) Wilcox, L. D., & Anderson, R. T. (1998). Distinguishing between phonological difference and disorder in children who speak African-American vernacular English: An experimental testing instrument. Journal of Communication Disorders, 31, 315-335.  26 C, CC Journal article
English (American) Kirk, C., & Demuth, K. (2005). Asymmetries in the acquisition of word-initial and word-final consonant clusters. Journal of Child Language, 32(4), 709-734.  12 CC Journal article
English (American) Mirak, J., & Rescorla, L. (1998). Phonetic skills and vocabulary size in late talkers: Concurrent and predictive relationships. Applied Psycholinguistics, 19(1), 1-17  20 C Journal article
English (American) Arlt, P. B., & Goodban, M. T. (1976). A comparative study of articulation acquisition as based on a study of 240 normals, aged three to six. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 7(3), 173-180.   240 C, CC, V Journal article
English (American) Bondarenko, K. (2011). Speech sound acquisition of two year olds. (Master's thesis), William Paterson University of New Jersey, Wayne, NJ.   25 C Thesis
English (American) Fabiano-Smith, L., & Goldstein, B. A. (2010). Early-, middle-, and late-developing sounds in monolingual and bilingual children: An exploratory investigation. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19(1), 66-77.   24 (8+8+8) C Journal article
English (American) Geitz, B. E. (1998). The development of stop consonant place of articulation in preadolescent children. (Master's thesis), Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.   64 C Thesis
English (American) Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., & Wright, K. L. (2010). English speech acquisition in 3- to 5-year-old children learning Russian and English. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41(4), 429-444.  42 (14+28) C, CC, PCC, PVC Journal article
English (American) – Spanish (Español) Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Kester, E. S., Davis, B. L., & Peña, E. D. (2008). English speech sound development in preschool-aged children from bilingual English-Spanish environments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39(3), 314-328.   33 (10+20+3) C Journal article
English (American) Holzberger, J. D. (1952). Development of consonant articulation and discrimination in the speech of kindergarten children. (Master's thesis), University of Colorado, Boulder, Colarado.   50 C Thesis
English (American) – Mandarin Liu-Shea, M. (2011). Phonological acquisition in simultaneous bilingual Mandarin-English preschoolers. (Doctoral dissertation), New York University, New York, NY. 10 C Thesis
English (American) McCune, L., & Vihman, M. M. (2001). Early phonetic and lexical development: A productivity approach. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44(3), 670-684. 20 C Journal article
English (American) Menyuk, P. (1968). The role of distinctive features in children's acquisition of phonology. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 11(1), 138-146. - C Journal article
English (American and African American) Pearson, B. Z., Velleman, S. L., Bryant, T. J., & Charko, T. (2009). Phonological milestones for African American English-speaking children learning mainstream American English as a second dialect. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40(3), 229-244.   854 (537+317) C, CC Journal article
English (American) Poole, E. (1934). Genetic development of articulation of consonant sounds in speech. Elementary English Review, 11, 159-161.  140 C Journal article
English (American) Porter, J. H., & Hodson, B. W. (2001). Collaborating to obtain phonological acquisition data for local schools. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 32(3), 165-171.  520 C Journal article
English (American) Prather, E. M., Hedrick, D. L., & Kern, C. A. (1975). Articulation development in children aged two to four years. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 40(2), 179-191.   147 C Journal article
English (American) Smit, A. B., Hand, L., Freilinger, J. J., Bernthal, J. E., & Bird, A. (1990). The Iowa Articulation Norms Project and its Nebraska replication. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 779-798.  997 C, CC Journal article
English (American) Templin, M. C. (1957). Certain language skills in children. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, The Institute of Child Welfare.  480 C, CC, V Book
English (American) Watson, M. M., & Scukanec, G. P. (1997). Profiling the phonological abilities of 2-year-olds: A longitudinal investigation. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 13(1), 3-14. 12 C, CC, PCC Journal article
English (American) Wellman, B., Case, I., Mengert, I., & Bradbury, D. (1931). Speech sounds of young children. University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, 5(2), Iowa City: University of Iowa Child Welfare Research Station.   240 C, CC, V Book
English (Australian) Chirlian, N. S., & Sharpley, C. F. (1982). Children's articulation development: Some regional differences. Australian Journal of Human Communication Disorders, 10, 23-30.  1,375 C Journal article
English (Australian) James, D. G. H., van Doorn, J., & McLeod, S. (2002). Segment production in mono-, di- and polysyllabic words in children aged 3-7 years. In F. Windsor, L. Kelly, & N. Hewlett (Eds.), Themes in Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics (pp. 287-298). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  283 PCC, PVC Book chapter
English (Australian) Kilminster, M. G. E., & Laird, E. M. (1978). Articulation development in children aged three to nine years. Australian Journal of Human Communication Disorders, 6, 23-30.  1,756 C Journal article
English (Australian) McIntosh, B., & Dodd, B. J. (2008). Two-year-olds' phonological acquisition: Normative data. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(6), 460-469.  62 C, CC, PCC, PVC, PPC Journal article
English (Australian) McLeod, S., & Arciuli, J. (2009). School-aged children's production of /s/ and /r/ consonant clusters. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 61(6), 336-341.   74 CC Journal article
English (Australian) McLeod, S., van Doorn, J., & Reed, V. A. (2001). Consonant cluster development in two-year-olds: General trends and individual difference. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44(5), 1144-1171.  16 CC Journal article
English (British) Dodd, B. J., Holm, A., Hua, Z., & Crosbie, S. (2003). Phonological development: A normative study of British English-speaking children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 17(8), 617-643.  684 C, CC, V, PCC, PVC, PPC Journal article
English (British) Roulstone, S., Loader, S., Northstone, K., & Beveridge, M. (2002). The speech and language of children aged 25 months: Descriptive data from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Early Child Development and Care, 172(3), 259-268.  1,127 C, CC Journal article
English (Canadian) MacLeod, A. A. N., Laukys, K., & Rvachew, S. (2011). The impact of bilingual language learning on whole-word complexity and segmental accuracy among children aged 18 and 36 months. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13(6), 490-499. 19 C, PCC Journal article
English (Irish) Monaghan, C. (2014). Are norms for percent consonant correct and the age of acquisition of phonemes in the Irish DEAP valid for a sample of typically developing children in Limerick? (Master's thesis), University of Limerick, Limerick, Republic of Ireland. 60 C, PCC Thesis
English (Malaysian) Phoon, H. S., Abdullah, A. C., & Maclagan, M. (2012). The effect of dialect on the phonological analysis of Chinese-influenced Malaysian English speaking children. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(6), 487-498.   264 C, CC, PCC Journal article
English (Malaysian) Phoon, H. S. (2010). The phonological development of Malaysian English speaking Chinese children: A normative study. (Doctoral dissertation), University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.   264 C, CC, V Thesis
English (New Zealand) Ballard, E., Wilson, J., Campbell, S., Purdy, S. C., & Yee, T. (2011). Phonological development: Establishing norms for New Zealand children aged 5;0 to 5;11 years. New Zealand Journal of Speech-Language Therapy, 66, 66-79.  106 PCC, PVC, PPC Journal article 
English (New Zealand) Moyle, J. (2005). The New Zealand Articulation Test Norms Project. New Zealand Journal of Speech-Language Therapy, 60, 61-74. 1,013 C, CC Journal article 
English (Singaporean)  En, L. G. W., Brebner, C., & McCormack, P. (2014). A preliminary report on the English phonology of typically developing English-Mandarin bilingual preschool Singaporean children. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 49(3), 317-332.  70 PCC, PVC, PPC Journal article
English (South African) Mowrer, D. E., & Burger, S. (1991). A comparative analysis of phonological acquisition of consonants in the speech of 2½-6-year-old Xhosa- and English-speaking children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 5(2), 139-164.  140 (70+70) C Journal article
English - Kikuyu Nyagah, J. W. (1994). The acquisition of initial English consonant clusters by Kikuyu children. (Doctoral dissertation), University of Reading, Reading, UK. 34 C, CC Thesis
English - Spanish (Dominican & Puerto Rican) Fabiano-Smith, L., & Goldstein, B. A. (2010). Early-, middle-, and late-developing sounds in monolingual and bilingual children: An exploratory investigation. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19(1), 66-77. 24 (8+8+8) C Journal article
English (American) - Spanish (Español) (Mexican) Ruiz-Felter, R., Cooperson, S. J., Bedore, L. M., & Peña, E. D. (in press). Influence of current input–output and age of first exposure on phonological acquisition in early bilingual Spanish–English-speaking kindergarteners. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders.  91 C, V Journal article
English - Spanish  (Español) (Mexican) Ermey, J. (1978). The acquisition of English consonant sounds by Spanish speaking Mexican-American children four to eight years of age. (Master's thesis), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. 500 C, CC Thesis
English - Welsh (Cymraeg) Munro, S., Ball, M. J., Müller, N., Duckworth, M., & Lyddy, F. (2005). Phonological acquisition in Welsh-English bilingual children. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 3(1), 24-49. 83 C Journal article
English - Welsh (Cymraeg) Howells, G. H. (2012). The acquisition of word final consonant clusters in Welsh-English bilingual children. (Honours thesis), Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales. 40 CC Thesis
English - Welsh (Cymraeg) Ball, M. J., Müller, N., & Munro, S. (2001). The acquisition of the rhotic consonants by Welsh-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(1), 71-86.  83 C, PCC Journal article
English - Welsh (Cymraeg) Ball, M. J., Muller, N., & Munro, S. (2001). The acquisition of the lateral fricative in Welsh-English bilinguals. Multilingua, 20(3), 269. 83 C Journal article
English - Welsh (Cymraeg) Ball, M. J., Müller, N., & Munro, S. (2001). Patterns in the acquisition of the Welsh lateral fricative. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 15(1/2), 3-7.  83 C Journal article
Finnish (suomi) Kunnari, S. (2003). Suomea omaksuvien lasten ensisanojen konsonantit [Early consonant inventories in children acquiring Finnish]. Puhe ja Kieli, 23(4), 197-205. [in Finnish] 10 C Journal article
Finnish (suomi) Kunnari, S. (2003). Consonant inventories: A longitudinal study of Finnish-speaking children. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 1(2), 124-131.  10 C Journal article
Finnish (suomi) Kunnari, S. (2006). Kaksivuotiaiden suomalaislasten konsonantti-inventaarit [2-year-old Finnish children's consonant inventory]. Puhe ja Kieli, 26(2), 71-79. [in Finnish]  24 C Journal article
Finnish (suomi) Saaristo-Helin, K. (2009). Measuring phonological development: A follow-up study of five children acquiring Finnish. Language and Speech, 52(1), 55-77. 5 C Journal article
Finnish (suomi) Tolvainen, J. (1997). The acquisition of Finnish. In D. I. Slobin (Ed.), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition (Vol. 4, pp.827-182). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 4 C Book chapter
French (Français) Demuth, K., & McCullough, E. (2009). The longitudinal development of clusters in French. Journal of Child Language, 36(2), 425-448. 2 CC Journal article
French (Français) Demuth, K., & Kehoe, M. (2006). The acquisition of word-final clusters in French. Catalan Journal of Linguistics, 5, 59-81. 14 CC Journal article
French (Français) -Drehu Monnin, J. (2010). Influence de la langue ambiante sur l'acquisition phonologique: Une comparaison du français et du drehu [The impact of language environment on phonological acquisition: A comparison of French and Drehu]. Université de Grenoble; Université de Nouvelle Calédonie. [in French]   C, CC Thesis
French (Français) (Canadian)
 Rvachew, S., Marquis, A., Brosseau-Lapré, F., Paul, M., Royle, P., & Gonnerman, L. M. (2013). Speech articulation performance of francophone children in the early school years: Norming of the Test de Dépistage Francophone de Phonologie. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 27(12), 950-968.   61 C, CC, PCC Journal article
French (Français) (Canadian)
 MacLeod, A. A. N., Laukys, K., & Rvachew, S. (2011). The impact of bilingual language learning on whole-word complexity and segmental accuracy among children aged 18 and 36 months. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13(6), 490-499.   40 (21+19) C, CC, PCC, WWP Journal article
French (Français) (Québécois) MacLeod, A. A. N., Sutton, A., Trudeau, N., & Thordardottir, E. (2011). The acquisition of consonants in Québécois French: A cross-sectional study of pre-school aged children. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13(2), 93-109. 156 C, CC, V, PCC Journal article
German (Deutsch) Fox, A. V., & Dodd, B. J. (1999). Der Erwerb des phonologischen systems in der deutschen Sprache [The acquisition of phonologicl systems in German]. Sprache-Stimme-Gehör, 23, 183-191. [in German]  178 C, CC, V, PCC, PVC, PPC Journal article
German (Deutsch)Schaefer, B., & Fox-Boyer, A. (2016, in press). The acquisition of initial consonant clusters in German-speaking 2-year-olds. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, doi:10.1080/17549507.2016.1221450145+
CCJournal article
Greek (Πρότυπο Νέας Ελληνικής) Syrika, A., Nicolaidis, K., Edwards, J., & Beckman, M. E. (2011). Acquisition of Initial /s/-stop and stop-/s/ sequences in Greek. Language and Speech, 54(3), 361-386. 60 C, CC Journal article
Greek (Πρότυπο Νέας Ελληνικής) Stephany, U. (1997). The acquisition of Greek. In D. I. Slobin (Ed.) The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition (Vol. 4, pp. 183-333). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum    Book chapter
Greek (Πρότυπο Νέας Ελληνικής) Edwards, J., & Beckman, M. E. (2008). Some cross-linguistic evidence for modulation of implicational universals by language-specific frequency effects in phonological development. Language Learning and Development, 4(2), 122-156. 85 (22+23+20+20) C Journal article
Greek (Πρότυπο Νέας Ελληνικής)(Cretan) Tzakosta, M. (2001). The realization of consonant clusters in child speech. Studies in Greek Linguistics, 21, 736-746. [in Greek] 1 CC Journal article
Greek (Πρότυπο Νέας Ελληνικής) (Cypriot) Petinou, K., & Theodorou, E. (2016). Early phonetic development in typically developing children: A longitudinal investigation from Cypriot-Greek child data. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 30(1), 12-28. 14 C Journal article
Greek (Πρότυπο Νέας Ελληνικής) (Modern)  Papadopoulou, K. (2000). Phonological acquisition of Modern Greek. (Bachelor's thesis), University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle, UK. 34 C, CC, V  

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Language (dialect) Reference No. of Participants Age of Acquisition Data* Access Information
Haitian Creole Archer, J., Champion, T., Tyrone, M. E., & Walters, S. (2013). Investigating phonological development in monolingual Haitian Creole-speaking preschool children. (Master's thesis), Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY.   12 C, CC, PCC  Thesis
Hebrew (עברית) (Israeli) Ben-David, A. (2001). רכישת שפה לאור תיאוריה פונולוגית:תהליכים משותפים וייחודיים בקרב ילדים שונים ובשפות שונות.[Language acquisition and phonological theory: Universal and variable processes across children and across languages]. (Doctoral dissertation), Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. [in Hebrew]  10 C, CC, V Thesis
Hebrew (עברית) Ben-David, A. (2015). Norms in Hebrew phonological acquisition. The Israeli Journal of Language, Speech and Hearing Disorders, 34, 1-14. [in Hebrew]  1,113   Journal article
Hebrew (עברית) Ben-David, A., & Bat-El, O. (2016). Paths and stages in acquisition of the phonological word in Hebrew. In R. Berman (Ed.), Acquisition and development of Hebrew: Infancy to adolescence. (pp. 39-68). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.    Book chapter
Hebrew (עברית) Lavie, S. (1978). Norms for the development of Hebrew consonants between the ages of 3 to 5 years. (Master's thesis), Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. [in Hebrew]  200   Thesis
Hindi Srivastava, G. P. (1974). A child's acquisition of Hindi consonants. Indian Linguistics, 35(2), 112-118. 1 C Journal article
Hungarian (Magyar) Nagy, J. (1980). 5-6 éves gyermekeink iskolakészültsége [Preparedness for school of five to six years old children]. Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó. [in Hungarian] 7,602 C, V, PCC Book
Icelandic (Íslenskur)  Másdóttir, T., & Stokes, S. F. (2016). Influence of consonant frequency on Icelandic-speaking children's speech acquisition. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 18(2), 111-121.   28 C Journal article
IgboNwokah, E. E. (1986). Consonantal substitution patterns in Igbo phonological acquisition. Language and Speech, 29(2), 159-176. doi:10.1177/00238309860290020439C, CCJournal article
Italian (Italiano) Zanobini, M., Viterbori, P., & Saraceno, F. (2012). Phonology and language development in Italian children: An analysis of production and accuracy. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 55(1), 16-31.  30 C Journal article
Italian (Italiano) Zmarich, C., & Bonifacio, S. (2005). Phonetic inventories in Italian children aged 18 - 27 months: A longitudinal study. Paper presented at the INTERSPEECH 2005 - Proceedings of Eurospeech, 9th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Lisbon, Portugal.  13 C Journal article
Jamaican Creole Meade, R. R. (2001). Acquisition of Jamaican phonology. (Doctoral dissertation), Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.   24 C, CC, V Thesis
Japanese (日本語) Edwards, J., & Beckman, M. E. (2008). Some cross-linguistic evidence for modulation of implicational universals by language-specific frequency effects in phonological development. Language Learning and Development, 4(2), 122-156.  85 (20+22+23+20) C Journal article
Japanese (日本語) Menyuk, P. (1968). The role of distinctive features in children's acquisition of phonology. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 11(1), 138-146. - C Journal article
Japanese (日本語) Nakanishi, Y., Owada, K., & Fujita, N. (1972). Kōonkensa to sono kekka ni kansuru kōsatsu [Discussion of articulatory testing and its results]. Tokyo Gakugei Daigaku Tokushu Kyoiku Shisetsu Hokoku, 1, 1-19. [in Japanese]  1,689 C Journal article
Japanese (日本語) Nakanishi, Y. (1982). Kōon hattatsu [Articulatory development]. In R. Uchisugawa & Y. Yasuko (Eds.), Kōza gengo shōgai chiryō kyōiku 4: Kōonshōgai [Series in language disorder therapy education 4: Articulatory disorders] (pp. 37-64). Tokyo, Japan: Fukumura Shupann. [in Japanese]  10 C, V Book chapter
Japanese (日本語) Noda, M., Iwamura, Y., Naito, K., & Asukai, K. (1969). Yōji no kōonnōryoku no hattatsu ni kansuru kenkyū [A study on the development of children's articulatory ability]. Nihon Sōgō Aiiku Kenkyūsho Kiyō, 4, 153-170. [in Japanese]  466 C Journal article
Japanese (日本語) Sakauchi, T. (1967). Kodomo no kōon nōryoku ni tsuite [On children's articulatory ability]. Gengo Shōgai Kenkyū, 68, 13-26. [in Japanese] 134 C, CC Journal article
Japanese (日本語) Takagi, S., & Yasuda, A. (1967). Seijōyōji (3 - 6 sai) no kōonnōryoku [The articulatory ability of typically developing children (ages 3 to 6)]. Shōni Hoken Igaku, 25, 23-28. [in Japanese]  133 C Journal article
Kikuyu - English Nyagah, J. W. (1994). The acquisition of initial English consonant clusters by Kikuyu children. (Doctoral dissertation), University of Reading, Reading, UK. 34 C, CC Thesis
Korean (한국어) Chung, H. (2006). Developmental processes in production and perception of Korean /s/ and /s*. (Doctoral dissertation), Kent State University, Kent, OH. 50 C, PCC Thesis
Korean (한국어) Kim, M., Kim, S. J., & Stoel-Gammon, C. (2016, in press). Phonological acquisition of Korean consonants in conversational speech produced by young Korean children. Journal of Child Language, doi: 10.1017/s030500091600025860C, PCCJournal article
Korean (한국어) Kim, M., & Pae, S. (2005). The percentage of consonants correct and the ages of consonantal acquisition for 'Korean-Test of Articulation for Children'. Korean Journal of Speech Sciences, 12(2), 139-152. 220 C, CC, PCC Journal article
Korean (한국어) Kim, Y. (1996). The percentage of consonant correct (PCC) using picture articulation test in preschool children. Korean Journal of Communication Disorders, 1, 7-33. [in Korean]  155 C Journal article
Korean (한국어) Oum, J. (1986). Speech-sound development in children aged three to five years in Korean: With special reference to consonants. (Master's thesis), Ewha Women's University, Seoul, South Korea. [in Korean]  150 C Thesis
Korean (한국어) Pae, S. (1995). The development of language in Korean children. In The Korean Society of Communication Disorders (Ed.), Training of speech pathologists (pp. 18-35). Seoul, South Korea: Hanhaksa. [in Korean]  320 C Book chapter
Korean (한국어) (Seoul) Kim, M., & Stoel-Gammon, C. (2011). Phonological development of word-initial Korean obstruents in young Korean children. Journal of Child Language, 38(2), 316-340. 40 C Journal article
Korean (한국어) (Seoul) Kim, M., & Stoel-Gammon, C. (2009). The acquisition of Korean word-initial stops. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125(6), 3950-3961.  40 C Journal article
Malay (Panang) Phoon, H. S., Abdullah, A. C., Lee, L. W., & Murugaiah, P. (2014). Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: A cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 28(5), 329-345. 326 C, PCC Journal article
Maltese (Malti) -English  Grech, H., & Dodd, B. (2008). Phonological acquisition in Malta: A bilingual language learning context. International Journal of Bilingualism, 12(3), 155-171  241 C Journal article
Maltese (Malti) Grech, H. (1998). Phonological development of normal Maltese speaking children. (Doctoral dissertation), University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. 21 C, CC, V Thesis
Mandarin (also see Putonghua, below) – English Liu-Shea, M. (2011). Phonological acquisition in simultaneous bilingual Mandarin-English preschoolers. (Doctoral dissertation), New York University, New York, NY. 10 C Thesis
Mandarin - Taiwanese - Spanish Yang, H.-Y., & Zhu Hua. (2010). The phonological development of a trilingual child: Facts and factors. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(1), 105-126. 1  Journal article
Norwegian (Norsk) Kristoffersen, K. E., & Simonsen, H. G. (2006). The acquisition of #sC clusters in Norwegian. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 4(3), 231-241.   27 C Journal article
Norwegian (Norsk) Olsen, J. W. (2015). Talen hos norske fireåringer: En normering av testverktøyet SVANTE-N for artikulasjons- og nasalitetsvansker [The speech of four-year-old Norwegian children: A standardization of the SVANTE N test for articulation and nasality]. (Masters thesis), Universitetet i Nordland, Bodø, Norway. [in Norwegian] 40 C Thesis
Persian Jalilevand, N., Kamali, M., Tavakoli, M., Mahmudi, Z., Amiri, M., Hadavi, S., & Javanbaxt, M. (2014). بررسي توانايي توليد خوشههاي دو همخواني در كلمات CVCC در كودكان 3 تا 6 ساله طبيعي فارسيزبان تكهجايي با ساختار [The ability of 3- to 6-years-old Persian-speaking children in production of consonant clusters in mono-syllable CVCC words]. Audiology, 23(3), 22-29. [in Persian] 200 CC Journal article
Polish (Polski) Yavaş, M., & Marecka, M. (2013). Acquisition of Polish #sC clusters in typically-developing children and children with phonological disorders. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(2), 132-141. 114 CC Journal article
Portuguese (Português)  Azambuja, E. J. M. (1998). A aquisição das líquidas laterais do Português: Um estudo transversal. (Master's thesis), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. [in Portuguese]  120 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português)  Lamprecht, R. R. (1990). Perfil de aquisição normal da fonologia do Português: Descrição longitudinal de crianças de 2:9 a 5:5 [Typical acquisition of Portuguese phonology: Longitudinal description of children 2;9-5;5]. (Doctoral dissertation), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. [in Portuguese] 12 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português)  Yavaş, M. S. (1988). Padrões na aquisição da fonologia do português [Patterns of the acquisition of phonology in Portuguese]. Letras de Hoje, 23(4), 7-30. [in Portuguese]  72 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Azevedo, C. D. (1994). Aquisição normal e com desvios da fonologia do português: Contrastes de sonoridade e de ponto de articulação [Typical and atypical acquisition of Portuguese phonology: Contrasts in sonority and place of articulation]. Letras de Hoje, 30(4), 285-294. [in Portuguese]  28 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian) Balen, S. A. (1995). Análise por traços distintivos do sistema fonológico de crianças com alterações na fala [DF analysis of the phonological system of children with speech disorders]. (Masters Thesis), Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil. [in Portuguese]  11 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian) Blanco-Dutra, A. P. (2009). A aquisição das fricativas /f/, /v/, /ʃ/ e /ʒ/ por crianças com desvio fonológico [The acquisition of the fricatives /f/, /v/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ by children with phonological disorder]. (Doctoral dissertation), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. [in Portuguese] 46 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian) Campos, C. M. (1994). O caráter não-reprodutivo e não-aleatório das auto-repetições na fala inicial [The non-replicating and non-random nature of self-repetitions in early speech]. (Masters thesis), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. [in Portuguese]  1 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian) Ferrante, C. (2007). Aquisição fonológica em crianças de 3 a 8 anos de classe sócio econômica alta [Phonological acquisition in 3- to 8-year old children from high SES]. (Masters thesis), Universidade Veiga de Almeida, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [in Portuguese] 240 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Hernandorena, C. L. M., & Lamprecht, R. R. (1997). A aquisição das consoantes líquidas do Português [The acquisition of liquid consonants in Portuguese]. Letras de Hoje, 32(4), 7-22. [in Portuguese]  310 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Hernandorena, C. L. M. (1990). A aquisição da fonologia do Português: Estabelecimento de padrões com base em traços distintivos [The acquisition of the Portuguese phonology : Establishment of standards based on distinctive features]. (Doctoral dissertation), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. [in Portuguese]  134 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Ilha, S. E. (1993). O desenvolvimento fonológico do Português em crianças com idade entre [Phonological development of Portuguese children]. (Master's thesis), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. [in Portuguese]  26 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Mezzomo, C. L., Baesso, J. S., Athayde, M. d. L., Dias, R. F., & Giacchini, V. (2008). O papel do contexto fonológico no desenvolvimento da fala: implicações para a terapia dos desvios fonológicos evolutivos [The role of phonological context in speech development: Implications for therapy of developmental phonological deviations]. Letras de Hoje, 43(3), 15-21. [in Portuguese]  170 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Mezzomo, C. (2001). Aquisição dos fonemas na posição de coda medial do português brasileiro em crianças com desenvolvimento fonológico normal [The acquisition of Brazilian Portuguese phonemes in the medial coda position by children with normal phonological development]. Letras de Hoje, 36(3), 707-713. [in Portuguese]  68 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Miranda, A. R. M. (2003). A representação das consoantes róticas nos sitemas de crianças brasileiras e argentinas [The representation of rhotics in Brazilian and Argentinian children's language systems]. Letras de Hoje, 38(2), 111-122. [in Portuguese] 116 (110+6) C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Mota, H. B. (1997). Aquisição segmental do português: um modelo implicacional de complexidade de traços [Acquisition of segments in Portuguese: A complexity model]. Letras de Hoje, 32(4), 23-47. [in Portuguese]  25 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Mota, H. B. (1996). Aquisição segmental do português: um modelo implicacional de complexidade de traços [Acquisition of segments in Portuguese: A complexity model]. (Doctoral dissertation), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. [in Portuguese]  25 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Oliveira, C. C. (2006). Aquisição das consoantes róticas no português brasileiro e no espanhol: Um estudo comparativo [Acquisition of rhotic consonants in Brazilian Portuguese and Spanish: A comparative study]. (Doctoral dissertation), Pontificia Universidade Católica Do Rio Grande Do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. [in Portuguese] - C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Oliveira, C. C. (2003). Perfil da aquisição das frivativas /f/, /v/, /s/ e /z/ do português brasileiro: um estudi quantitativo [Acquisition profiles of the fricatives /f/, /v/, /s/, and /z/ in Brazilian Portuguese: A quantitative study]. Letras de Hoje, 38(2), 97-110. [in Portuguese] 406 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Oliveira, C. C. (2002). Aquisição dos fonemas /f/, /v/, /s/ e /z/ do português brasileiro [Acquisition of the phonemes /f/, /v/, /s/, and /z/ in Brazilian Portuguese]. (Master's thesis), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. [in Portuguese]  - C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian) Patah, L. K., & Takiuchi, N. (2008). Prevalência das alterações fonológicas e uso dos processos fonológicos em escolares aos 7 anos. Revista CEFAC, 10(2), 158-167. [in Portuguese]  1,076 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Salviano Santini, C. R. (1995). Normative study of the acquisition of consonant sounds in Portuguese. (Doctoral dissertation), University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.   192 C, CC, PCC Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Savio, C. (2001). Aquisição das fricativas /s/ e /z/ do Português Brasileiro [Acquisition of the fricatives /s/ and /z/ in Brazilian Portuguese]. Letras de Hoje, 36(3), 721-727. [in Portuguese]  - C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (Brazilian)
 Silva, M. K., Ferrante, C., Van Borsel, J., & Pereira, M. M. (2012). Phonological acquisition of Brazilian Portuguese in children from Rio de Janeiro. Jornal da Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia, 24(3), 248-254. 480 C, CC, PCC Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (European)
 Amorim, C. (2014). A aquisição das consoantes líquidas em português europeu: contributos para a caracterização da faixa etária 4;0 - 4;11 anos [The acquisition of liquid consonants in European Portuguese: Characterizaton of children 4;0-4;11]. Revista de Estudos Linguísticos da Universidade do Porto, 9, 59-82.   40 C Journal article
Portuguese (Português) (European) Charrua, C. P. (2011). Aquisição fonética-fonológica do Português Europeu dos 18 aos 36 meses [Phonetic-phonological acquisition of European Portuguese from 18 to 36 months]. (Masters thesis), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. [in Portuguese] 46 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (European) Guerreiro, H., & Frota, S. (2010). Os processos fonológicos na fala da criança de cinco anos: tipologia e frequência [Phonological processes at five-years old: type and frequency]. Cadernos de Saúde, 3(1), 57-72. [in Portuguese]  43 C Thesis
Portuguese (Português) (European) Moutinho, L. d. C., & Lima, R. M. (n/d). Desempenho fonético em crianças dos 3 a 7 anos de idade no P.E. [Phonetic performance in European Portuguese in children aged 3 to 7]. Manuscript. [in Portuguese]  432 C Journal article
Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), Mirpuri, Urdu Stow, C., & Pert, S. (2006). Phonological acquisition in bilingual Pakistani heritage children in England. In Z. Hua & B. J. Dodd (Eds.), Phonological Development and Disorders in Children: A Multilingual Perspective (pp. 326-345). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. 246 C, PCC Book chapter
Putonghua (also see Mandarin, above) Hua, Z., & Dodd, B. (2000). The phonological acquisition of Putonghua (modern standard Chinese). Journal of Child Language, 27(1), 3-42. 129 C, V, T Journal article
Russian (русский) Timm, L. A. (1977). A child's acquisition of Russian phonology. Journal of Child Language, 4(3), 329-339.  1 C Journal article
Russian (русский) Beltukov, V. (1983). О сроках усвоения в произнопении звуков речи слыппашими детьми [Periods of mastery of articulation of speech sounds by hearing children]. Defektologiya, 2, 28-34. [in Russian] -   Journal article
Russian (русский) Zharkova, N. (2005). Strategies in the acquisition of segments and syllables in Russian-speaking children. In M. Tzakosta, C. Levelt & J. van de Weijer (Eds), Developmental paths in phonological acquisition. Special issue of Leiden Papers in Linguistics, 2(1), 189-213.  10 C, V Book chapter
Russian (русский) – English Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., & Wright, K. L. (2010). English speech acquisition in 3- to 5-year-old children learning Russian and English. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41(4), 429-444. 42 (14+28) C, CC, PCC, PVC Journal article

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Language (dialect) Reference No. of Participants Age of Acquisition Data* Access Information
Samoan Ballard, E., & Farao, S. (2008). The phonological skills of Samoan speaking 4-year-olds. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(6), 379-391.  20 C, V, PCC, PVC Journal article
Setswana
Tswana  
Mahura, O. O., & Pascoe, M. (2016). The acquisition of Setswana segmental phonology in children aged 3.0–6.0 years: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 18(6), 533-549. 36 C, V, PCC, PVC Journal article
Slovenian (slovenščina)  Muznik, M. (2012). Fonološki razvoj otrok med 3. in 7. letom starosti (transkripcija govora) [Phonological development of children aged 3 to 7 years (transcription of speech)]. (Bachelor's thesis), Univerza V Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. [in Slovenian] 30 C, CC Thesis
Slovenian (slovenščina)  Globačnik, B. (1978). Javljanje glasov v govoru kot osnova za oceno artikulacije predšolskih otrok [Assessing the speech and articulation of preschool children]. (thesis). Univerza v Zagrebu, Ljubljana, Slovenia. [in Slovenian] 60 C, CC Thesis
Slovenian (slovenščina) (Maribor) Marin, A. (2013). Fonološki (govorni) razvoj otrok med 2;5. in 5;7. letom starosti : transkripcija govora [Phonological development of children aged 2;5 to 5;7: Speech transcription]. (Bachelor's thesis), Univerza V Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. [in Slovenian]  70 C Thesis
Spanish (Español) Melgar de Gonzalez, M. (1976). Como detectar al niño con problemas del habla [Identifying the child with speech problems]. Mexico City, Mexico: Trillas.    Book
Spanish (Español) – Mandarin – Taiwanese Yang, H.-Y., & Zhu Hua. (2010). The phonological development of a trilingual child: Facts and factors. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(1), 105-126. 1  Journal article
Spanish (Español) (Argentinian) Miranda, A. R. M. (2003). A representação das consoantes róticas nos sitemas de crianças brasileiras e argentinas [The representation of rhotics in Brazilian and Argentinian children's language systems]. Letras de Hoje, 38(2), 111-122. [in Portuguese] 116 (6+110) C Journal article
Spanish (Español) (Chilean) Vivar, P. A. V. (2009). Evaluación de grupos consonanticos de ataque complejo en un grupo de niños de la ciudad de Concepción con prueba articulatoria CEFI. Onomázein, 20(2), 33-44. [in Spanish] 72 CC Journal article
Spanish (Español) (Dominican & Puerto Rican) – English Fabiano-Smith, L., & Goldstein, B. A. (2010). Early-, middle-, and late-developing sounds in monolingual and bilingual children: An exploratory investigation. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19(1), 66-77. 24 (8+8+8) C Journal article
Spanish (Español) – English Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Kester, E. S., Davis, B. L., & Peña, E. D. (2008). English speech sound development in preschool-aged children from bilingual English-Spanish environments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39(3), 314-328. 33 (23+10) C, CC Journal article
Spanish (Español) (Dominican) De la Fuenta, M. T. (1985). The order of acquisition of Spanish consonant phonemes by monolingual Spanish speaking children between the ages of 2.0 and 6.5. (Doctoral dissertation), Georgetown University, Washington DC. 55 C Thesis
Spanish (Español) (Mexican)  Macken, M. A. (1975). The acquisition of intervocalic consonants in Mexican Spanish: A cross-sectional study based on imitation data. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 9(Apr), 29-42. 16 C Journal article
Spanish (Español) (Mexican)  Linares, T. A. (1981). Articulation skills in Spanish-speaking children. In R. Padilla (Ed.), Ethnoperspectives in bilingual education research: Bilingual education technology (pp. 363-367). Ypsilanti, MI: Eastern Michigan University Press. 245 (97+148) C Book chapter
Spanish (Español) (Mexican)  Jimenez, B. C. (1987). Acquisition of Spanish consonants in children aged 3-5 years, 7 months. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 18(4), 357-363. 120 C Journal article
Spanish (Español) (Mexican) Acevedo, M. A. (1993). Development of Spanish consonants in preschool children. Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders, 15(2), 9-15. 120 C, PCC Journal article
Spanish (Español) (Mexican) - English Ermey, J. (1978). The acquisition of English consonant sounds by Spanish speaking Mexican-American children four to eight years of age. (Master's thesis), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. 500 C, CC Thesis
Spanish (Español) (Mexican) – English (American) Ruiz-Felter, R., Cooperson, S. J., Bedore, L. M., & Peña, E. D. (in press). Influence of current input–output and age of first exposure on phonological acquisition in early bilingual Spanish–English-speaking kindergarteners. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders. 91 C, PCC, PVC Journal article
Swahili Gangji, N., Pascoe, M., & Smouse, M. (2014). Swahili speech development: Preliminary normative data from typically developing pre-school children in Tanzania. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 50(2), 151-164. 24 C, CC, V, PCC, PVC Journal article
Swedish (Svenska) Engstrand, O., Williams, K., & Strömqvist, S. (1991). Acquisition of the Swedish tonal word accent contrast. In O. Engstrand, C. Kylander & M. Dufberg (Eds.), Phonetic Experimental Research, Institute of Linguistics, University of Stockholm (PERILUS) No. XII (pp. 189-193). Stockholm, Sweden: Department of Phonetics, University of Stockholm.  5 T Book chapter
Swedish (Svenska) Klintö, K., Eva Kristina, S., Olsson, M., Flynn, T., Svensson, H., & Lohmander, A. (2014). Phonology in Swedish-speaking 3-year-olds born with cleft lip and palate and the relationship with consonant production at 18 months. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 49(2), 240-254.  20 PCC Journal article
Swedish (Svenska) Nilsson, K., & Norberg, A. (2013). Normering av svenska 3-åringars prestation gällande artikulation, nasalitet och fonologi på SVenskt Artikulations- och NasalitetsTEst (SVANTE) – en utökning. Karolinska Institutet. [in Swedish] 50 C, PCC Journal article
Swedish (Svenska) Roug, L., Landberg, I., & Lundberg, L.-J. (1989). Phonetic development in early infancy: A study of four Swedish children during the first eighteen months of life. Journal of Child Language, 16, 19-40. 4 C, V Journal article
Taiwanese – Mandarin – Spanish Yang, H.-Y., & Zhu Hua. (2010). The phonological development of a trilingual child: Facts and factors. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(1), 105-126 1  Journal article
Telugu Chervela, N. (1981). Medial consonant cluster acquisition by Telugu children. Journal of Child Language, 8(1), 63-73. 4 CC Journal article
Thai
(ภาษาไทย)
 
Boonyathitisuk, P. (1982). Articulatory characteristics of kindergarten children aged three to four years eleven months in Bangkok. (Master's thesis), Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. [In Thai] 400 C Thesis
Turkish (Türkçe) Acarlar, F., and Ege, P. (1996). Türkçe kazanımda kullanılan fonolojik süreçlerin incelenmesi. [Phonological processes in the acquisition of Turkish] Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 38, 35–43. [in Turkish]  20 PCC Journal article
Turkish (Türkçe) Topbaş, S., & Yavaş, M. (2006). Phonological acquisition and disorders in Turkish. In Zhu Hua & B. Dodd, (Eds), Phonological development and disorders in children: A multilingual perspective (pp. 233–265). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. 665 C, CC, PCC Book chapter
Turkish (Türkçe) Topbaş, S., & Kopkalli-Yavuz, H. (2008). Reviewing sonority for word-final sonorant+obstruent consonant cluster development in Turkish. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 22(10-11), 871-880. 350 CC Journal article
Turkish (Türkçe) Topbaş, S. (1998). Konuşma sorunlu çocukların sesbilgisel çözümleme yöntemi ile değerlendirilmesi. [Assessment of speech disordered children by phonological analysis]. Eskişehir, Turkey: Anadolu University Press. [in Turkish]     Book
Turkish (Türkçe) Topbaş, S. (1997). Phonological acquisition of Turkish children: Implications for phonological disorders. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 32(4), 377-396. 22 C, CC Journal article
Turkish (Türkçe) Yalcinkaya, F., Muluk, N. B., & Budak, B. (2010). Speech Sounds Acquisition Evaluated by Speech Sound Development Test (SSDT) in Turkish-Speaking Children. Journal of International Advanced Otology, 6(1), 60-66. 753 C Journal article
Turkish (Türkçe) (Standard) Ege, P. (2010). Türkçe'deki Ünsüzlerin Edinimi: Bir Norm Çalışması [A normative study of consonant acquisiton in Turkish]. Turk Psikoloji Dergisi, 25(65), 16-34. [in Turkish]  1359 C Journal article
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) (Southern) Nguyen Thi, L. K. (2011). Nội dung đánh giá khả năng phát âm âm tiết của trẻ mẫu giáo [Assessment content of syllable pronunciation ability in Vietnamese speaking preschoolers]. NGÔN NGỮ, 9.  [in Vietnamese] 298 C Journal article
Welsh (Cymraeg) – English Ball, M. J., Müller, N., & Munro, S. (2001). The acquisition of the rhotic consonants by Welsh-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(1), 71-86. 83 C, PCC Journal article
Welsh (Cymraeg) – English  Ball, M. J., Müller, N., & Munro, S. (2001). Patterns in the acquisition of the Welsh lateral fricative. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 15(1/2), 3-7.  83 C Journal article
Welsh (Cymraeg) – English Howells, G. H. (2012). The acquisition of word final consonant clusters in Welsh-English bilingual children. (Honour's thesis), Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales. 40 CC Thesis
Welsh (Cymraeg) – English Munro, S., Ball, M. J., Müller, N., Duckworth, M., & Lyddy, F. (2005). Phonological acquisition in Welsh-English bilingual children. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 3(1), 24-49. 83 C Journal article
Xhosa (isiXhosa) Gxhilishe, S. (2004). The acquisition of clicks by Xhosa-speaking children. Per Linguam, 20(2), 1-12. 10 CJournal article
Xhosa (isiXhosa) Maphalala, Z., Pascoe, M., & Smouse, M. R. (2014). Phonological development of first language isiXhosa-speaking children aged 3;0–6;0 years: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 28(3), 176-194. 24 C, V, PCC, PVCJournal article
Xhosa (isiXhosa) Maphalala, Z. (2012). Phonological development of first language isiXhosa-speaking children aged 3;0-6;0 years: A descriptive cross-sectional study. (Master's thesis), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. 24 C, V, PCC, PVCThesis
Xhosa (isiXhosa) Mowrer, D. E., & Burger, S. (1991). A comparative analysis of phonological acquisition of consonants in the speech of 2½-6-year-old Xhosa- and English-speaking children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 5(2), 139-164. 140 (70+70)CJournal article
Xhosa (isiXhosa) (Cape Town) Toumi, S. K., Gxhilishe, S., & Matomela, L. (2001). The acquisition of Xhosa phonemes. Per Linguam, 17(1), 14-23.  10 C, VJournal article
Zulu (isiZulu) Naidoo, Y., van der Merwe, A., Groenewald, E., & Naudé, E. (2005). Development of speech sounds and syllable structure of words in Zulu-speaking children. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 23(1), 59-79. 18 C, CC, VJournal article

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*Age of acquisition data for C, consonants; CC, consonant clusters; V, vowels; T, tones; PCC, percentage of consonants correct; PVC, percentage of vowels correct; PPC, percentage of phonemes correct; WWP, whole word proximity.

Acknowledgments

Dr Kathryn Crowe and members of the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech provided support for the creation of the information on this page.

References

Goldstein, B. A., & McLeod, S. (2012). Typical and atypical multilingual speech acquisition. In S. McLeod & B. A. Goldstein (Eds.), Multilingual aspects of speech sound disorders in children (pp. 84-100). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

McLeod, S. (Ed.). (2007). The international guide to speech acquisition. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

McLeod, S. (2010). Laying the foundations for multilingual acquisition: An international overview of speech acquisition. In M. Cruz-Ferreira (Ed.), Multilingual norms (pp. 53-71). Frankfurt: Peter Lang Publishing.

Suggested citation

McLeod, S. (2016). Multilingual speech acquisition studies. Bathurst, NSW, Australia: Charles Sturt University. Retrieved from http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech/speech-acq-studies