Charles Sturt University
Charles Sturt University

Speech Participation and Activity Assessment of Children (SPAA-C)

(Pronounced /spa si/ "spa see")

The Speech Participation and Activity Assessment of Children (SPAA-C) is designed to support professionals and researchers to understand the lives of children and other important people who surround them. It includes questions for the children themselves, their siblings, friends, parents, teachers and others involved in their daily lives. Most questions can be answered in an interview format; however, there is one section for children to indicate their response by drawing.

SPAA-C originally was developed to provide speech-language pathologists with information about children with speech sound disorders but may also be relevant for considering children's communication more broadly (e.g., with children who are multilingual, children who stutter, children who have language disorders, children with hearing loss). The questions can be adapted to suit the context.

The SPAA-C is free and downloadable from the links below. Information about the creation of the SPAA-C can be found at

The SPAA-C has been translated into a number of languages (see below) and has been used in research and practice in different countries. If you would like to be involved in translating, or researching using the SPAA-C, please contact us.

Language SPAA-C Documents
Afrikaans Assessering van Spraakdeelname en Aktiwiteite van Kinders  Brenda Louw, Ph.D., East Tennessee State University, USA and Juan Bornman, Ph.D., Karin Van Niekerk, Enid Moolman, University of Pretoria, South Africa
English Speech Participation and Activity Assessment of Children Sharynne McLeod, Ph.D., Charles Sturt University, Australia 
  • Child Form (German)
  • Child Form (German - English)
Sandra Neumann, Ph.D. 
Konuşma Katılımı ve Etkinliği Değerlendirmesi
  • Child Form (Turkish)
  • Child Form (Turkish - English)
Seyhun Topbaş, Ph.D.
(Tiếng Việt)
Đánh giá Hoạt động và Sự tham gia liên quan đến lời nói của trẻ em: Tiếng Việt Ben Phạm, Charles Sturt University, Australia; Hanoi National University of Education, Viet Nam

*These translations have not been back translated by a professional translation company unless specified.


The SPAA-C was developed by Sharynne McLeod in conjunction with 120 participants in the master class at the Speech Pathology Australia National Conference, Hobart (May, 2003) and the 100 participants in the Speech Pathology Australia Professional Development workshop, Perth (June, 2003).

It originally was published as an appendix to the following article: McLeod, S. (2004). Speech pathologists' application of the ICF to children with speech impairment. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 75-81.

Speech Pathology Australia (Gail Mulcair, CEO) has given permission for the SPAA-C and its translations to be shared on the Multilingual Children's Speech website.

Thank you to the researchers and speech-language pathologists who have used and translated the SPAA-C.


SPAA-C has been described in the following papers

McLeod, S. (2004). Speech pathologists' application of the ICF to children with speech impairment. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 75-81.

McLeod, S., McCartney, E. & McCormack, J. (2012). Communication (d310-d369). In A. Majnemer (Eds). Measures for children with developmental disabilities: Framed by the ICF-CY (pp. 312-325). London: Mac Keith Press.

SPAA-C has been used in the following publications

Barr, J., McLeod, S., & Daniel, G. (2008). Siblings of children with speech impairment: Cavalry on the hill. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39, 21-32.

Daniel, G. R. & McLeod, S. (2017). Children with speech sound disorders at school: Challenges for children, parents and teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 42(2), 81-101. Retrieved from

Hopf, S. C., McLeod, S., & McDonagh, S. H. (2017). Fiji school children's multilingual language choices when talking with friends. In M. Theobald (Ed.). Friendship and peer culture in multilingual settings. Sociological studies of children and youth (Vol. 22) (pp. 55-88). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

McCormack , J., McLeod, S., McAllister, L. & Harrison, L. J. (2010). My speech problem, your listening problem, and my frustration: The experience of living with childhood speech impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 379–392. doi: 10.1044/0161-1461(2009/08-0129).

McLeod, S., Crowe, K., Masso, S., Baker, E., McCormack, J., Wren, Y., Roulstone, S., & Howland, C. (2017, in press). Profile of Australian preschoolers with speech sound disorders at risk for literacy difficulties. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties. doi: 10.1080/19404158.2017.1287105

McLeod, S., Daniel, G., & Barr, J. (2013). "When he's around his brothers … he's not so quiet": The private and public worlds of school-aged children with speech sound disorder. Journal of Communication Disorders, 46(1), 70-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2012.08.006

McLeod, S., Verdon, S. & Theobald, M. (2015). Becoming bilingual: Children's insights about making friends in bilingual settings. International Journal of Early Childhood, 47(3), 38-402. doi: 10.1007/s13158-015-0148-7

Neumann, S. (2011). Listening to children with cleft lip and palate in Germany. In S. Roulstone & S. McLeod (Eds.), Listening to children and young people with speech, language and communication needs. (pp. 187-194). London: J&R Press.

Neumann, S. (2011). LKGSF komplex - Sprachtherapeutische Diagnostik bei Lippen-Kiefer-Gaumen-Segel-Fehlbildung. München, Germany: Ernst Reinhard Verlag.