Charles Sturt University
Charles Sturt University

Example rubrics

Standards for common measurable learning outcome verbs/actions

Verbs describing student action need to be measurable because assessment has to measure action.

The intent of this information is to provide you with a basis of criterion and standards which can be either used alone or combined to suit your purpose. The content or contextual words should be changed to suit your content and context. Blend the standards to suit your subject learning outcomes.

While the actions in this list have been described as a single verb many are often combined with others to provide an expanded criterion to students that meet your subject and graduate learning outcomes.

Verbs with similar meaning have been grouped.The groupings are based on the key elements and ideas in Blooms' Taxonomy. If the verb you need is not listed, search for one with a similar meaning, or use a browser search within this page for the verb you need to use. For example, the verb "criticise" is included with the "analyse" group of words.

Bloom's Taxonomy

I. Remembering: Exhibit memory of previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers.

II. Understanding: Demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by organising, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas.

III. Applying: Make use of as relevant, suitable, or pertinent; apply a theory to a problem; put to use, especially for a particular purpose: to apply pressure to open a door.

IV. Analysing:Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Analyse and make inferences and find evidence to support generalisations.

V. Evaluating:Present and defend opinions by making judgements about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria.

VI. Creating:Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions.

Click on each letter to view the common verbs and their standards or click on expand on the right hand side of the list to view all verbs.

A
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Apply Apply (professional practice/theory/concepts) to (a given situation or environment). Analyse and explain how the professional practice/action/theory or concept is applied to the given situation supporting your argument for the application with examples and literature. Compare and contrast different approaches in your argument. Explain how the professional practice/action/theory or concept is applied to the given situation supporting your argument for the application. Explain how the professional practice/action/theory or concept is applied to the given situation. Summarise/list how the professional practice/action/theory or concept is applied to the given situation.

Analyse/ Criticise/critique

Analyses, reasons, and produces well-argued and carefully constructed accounts of complex thinking.

Critically selects, evaluates, and structures ideas in a format that engages and informs the reader/listener through a compelling, comprehensive, and well-articulated argument seamlessly supported by a wide range of relevant and credible sources.

Selects, analyses, synthesises, and structures ideas in a format that engages and informs the reader/listener through a credible, comprehensive, clear, and carefully constructed argument supported by a range of relevant and credible sources.

Selects, applies, and structures ideas in a format that provides the reader/listener with a clearly discernible and logically-sequenced argument relevant to the purpose and context, and supported by more than five relevant and credible sources.

Presents relevant and credible, but limited, information in a structure and format appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context, and supported by at least five relevant and credible sources.

Argue/ Justify /Rate

Analyses, reasons, and produces well-argued and carefully constructed accounts of complex thinking.

Critically selects, evaluates, and structures ideas in a format that engages and informs the reader/listener through a compelling, comprehensive, and well-articulated argument seamlessly supported by a wide range of relevant and credible sources.

Selects, analyses, synthesises, and structures ideas in a format that engages and informs the reader/listener through a credible, comprehensive, clear, and carefully constructed argument supported by a range of relevant and credible sources.

Selects, applies, and structures ideas in a format that provides the reader/listener with a clearly discernible and logically-sequenced argument relevant to the purpose and context, and supported by more than five relevant and credible sources.

Presents relevant and credible, but limited, information in a structure and format appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context, and supported by at least five relevant and credible sources.

Adapt/ Change/redevelop/ Improve/reconstruct/revise/ Compile/assemble/ Modify

Build or construct (something physical/a story/a system/an idea) to (a set of specifications/design/freeform).

Object (theory/system/idea/physical object) is adapted to suit a situation as standalone with a explanation of its component parts justifying choice of design/practice/development.

Object  (theory/system/idea/physical object) is adapted to suit a situation as standalone with a explanation of its component parts.

Object (theory/system/idea/physical object) is adapted to suit a situation as standalone with a description of its component parts.

Object (theory/system/idea/physical object) is adapted to suit a situation as standalone.

B
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS

Build/ Construct/ Develop/Design/ Formulate/Generate/ Invent /Prepare

Build or construct (something physical/a story/a system/an idea) to  (a set of specifications/design/freeform).

Object (theory/system/idea/physical object) is created as standalone with a explanation of its component parts justifying choice of design/practice/development.

Object (theory/system/idea/physical object) is created as standalone with a explanation of its component parts.

Object (theory/system/idea/physical object) is created as standalone with a description of its component parts.

Object (theory/system/idea/physical object)  is created as standalone.

C
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS

Choose/ Select

Criterion: Select a course of action or protocol for a particular context.

Select and justify the optimum course of action or protocol for a particular context including recommendations for future practice.

Select and justify the chosen course of action or protocol for a particular context.

Select and explain the course of action or protocol for a particular context.

Select a course of action or protocol for a particular context.

Collect

Criterion: Collect information/objects/practices together to (your environment or context).

Collate information or objects or practices together in a prescribed space explaining and justifying the organisation of the space.

Collate information or objects or practices together in a prescribed space explaining the organisation of the space.

Collate information or objects or practices together in a prescribed space outlining the  organisation of the space..

Collect information or objects or practices together in a prescribed space .

Classify

Criterion: Classify a group of (objects, themes or concepts according to shared qualities or characteristics.

List key components into named or themed groups justifying choices.

List key components into named groups explaining choices.

List key components into groups explaining choices.

List key components into groups.

Compare

Compare is an action that can be undertaken on its own but is often paired with contrast which is described below under Compare and Contrast.

Criterion: Compare the components of the (your content or context).

Compare all components of the (your content or context) justifying choices.

Compare all components of the (your content or context) explaining choices.

Compare key components of the (your content or context) explaining choices.

Compare key components of the (your content or context).

Calculate/compute

Determine (the amount or number of something) mathematically.

Note: these standards support a three-part marking system for each question. Total marks determine final numerical grade.

 

Calculations include workings and an answer where both the workings and the answer are correct.

Calculations include workings and an answer where either the workings or the answer are correct.

Calculations include an answer and the answer is correct.

Categorise/classify/organise/grade/rate/designate/ Differentiate discriminate between

Place in a particular class or group.

List and justify, suggesting alternate classification or organisation where anomalies exist.

List and justify classification or organisation.

List and explain classification or organisation.

List classification or organisation.

Compare and contrast

To contrast something is to look for differences among two or more elements, but compare is to do the opposite, to look for similarities.

Explain differences and similarities evaluating your choice with evidence.

Explain differences and similarities justifying your choice with evidence.

Explain differences and similarities.

List differences and similarities.

Conclude/derive/ Discover/determine

To draw conclusion from information or data.

Analyse the overall findings from data evaluating the different aspects and drawing conclusions of their use.

Analyse the overall findings from data comparing and contrasting the different aspects.

Summarise and explain the overall findings from data

List or summarise the overall findings from data

D
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS

Define/state

State the meaning of something.

Criterion: Define (something).

Explain the meaning of (an object, place, or context) and describe its significance with examples and support by literature.

Explain the meaning of (an object, place, or context) with examples and support by literature.

Explain the meaning of (an object, place, or context) and support by literature.

State the meaning of (an object, place, or context) and support by literature.

Describe/outline/ Express

Criterion: Outline (the procedure, process, practice etc. based on a scenario, case, legislation, etc.).

Outline (the procedure, process, practice etc.) explaining each step/process describing and justifying how each relate to each other with illustrations.

Outline (the procedure, process, practice etc.) explaining each step/process describing how each relate to each other.

Outline (the procedure, process, practice etc.) explaining each step/process.

Outline (the procedure, process, practice etc.).

Demonstrate (a skill in a practical task)

For use with a skills based practical task, competency based.

Criterion: Demonstrate expertise in a discipline based practice to an industry standard.

Use of the appropriate materials and techniques for the context, including the correct sequence and adherence to relevant discipline standards 85-100% of the time.

Use of the appropriate materials and techniques for the context, including the correct sequence and adherence to relevant discipline standards 75-84% of the time.

Use of the appropriate materials and techniques for the context, including the correct sequence and adherence to relevant discipline standards 65-74% of the time.

Use of the appropriate materials and techniques for the context, including the correct sequence and adherence to relevant discipline standards 50-64% of the time.

Discuss/Distinguish (between)/differentiate

Discuss the (topic) considering all aspects and factors impacting on its implementation.

Summarise aspects and factors of the (topic, context or situation) comparing, contrasting and defending your position on the impacts.

Summarise aspects and factors of the (topic, context or situation) comparing and contrasting their impacts.

Identify aspects and factors of the (topic, context or situation) comparing and contrasting their impacts.

Identify aspects and factors of the (topic, context or situation) describing their impacts.

Differentiate/discriminate between/categorize/classify/organise/grade/rate

Place in a particular class or group.

List and justify suggesting alternate classification or organisation where anomalies exist.

List and justify classification or organisation.

List and explain classification or organisation.

List classification or organisation.

E
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS

Explain/Paraphrase (in your own words)

Criterion: Explain a (your concept, theme, object, or scenario, motivation etc.).

Evaluate (your concept, theme, object, or scenario, motivation etc.) with clarity providing reasoning for your statements with examples.

Analyse (your concept, theme, object, or scenario, motivation etc.) with clarity providing reasoning for your statements.

Explain (your concept, theme, object, or scenario, motivation etc.) with clarity providing reasoning for your statements.

Explain (your concept, theme, object, or scenario, motivation etc.) with clarity.

F
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS

Follow procedures

For use with an early developmental practical task.

Criterion: Followed appropriate procedures and used techniques suitable for the context or situation, in correct sequences and meeting any discipline standards.

Use of the appropriate materials and techniques for the context, including the correct sequence and adherence to relevant discipline standards 85-100% of the time.

Use of the appropriate materials and techniques for the context, including the correct sequence and adherence to relevant discipline standards 75-84% of the time.

Use of the appropriate materials and techniques for the context, including the correct sequence and adherence to relevant discipline standards 65-74% of the time.

Use of the appropriate materials and techniques for the context, including the correct sequence and adherence to relevant discipline standards 50-64% of the time.

H
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Hypothesise /Propose /Theorise To put forward a possible solution or theory to be proven. List and explain components of the theory or solution and justify your reasoning for how they could be addressed evaluating your processes. List and explain components of the theory or solution and justify your reasoning for how they could be addressed. List components of the theory or solution and explain how they could be addressed. List components of the theory or solution and summarise how they could be addressed.
I
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Identify/record Establish or indicate who or what (someone or something) is.  List all elements or characteristics of (the area, thing or person in the situation. List 75%  of (elements or characteristics)in the (context of the learning). List 65%  of (elements or characteristics)in the (context of the learning). List 50%  of (elements or characteristics)in the (context of the learning).
Identify (from a scenario/case) Criterion: Identify and record the (knowledge or contents of the task) in (a context)     
Illustrate Criterion: Enhance your explanation by illustrating with examples, charts and/or pictures. Illustrations are clear, accurate and succinct, relevant, linked to and enhance text and referenced accurately. Illustrations are clear and succinct, relevant, linked to and enhance text and referenced accurately. Illustrations are relevant, linked to and enhance text and referenced accurately. Illustrations are relevant, linked to text and referenced.
Infer Deduce or conclude (something) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements.  All aspects of evidence leading to your conclusion are identified, evaluated and justified. All aspects of evidence leading to your conclusion are identified, analysed and explained. Key evidence leading to your conclusion is identified, explained and justified. Key evidence leading to your conclusion is identified and explained.
Interpret (A) Explain the meaning of (information or actions,depending on context of subject). clarification clarification   Explain the meaning of (information or actions).
Interpret (B) Perform (a dramatic role or piece of music)in a way that conveys one's understanding of the creator's ideas (depending on context of subject).     Convey the creator’s ideas to an audience based on your own perspective.
L
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Label/name/ List/recall/ Reproduce Recommended for an early low stakes assessment in first year. May be combined with other actions. Label/name/ List/recall (your content area)with 85-100% accuracy. Label/name/ List/recall (your content area)with 75-84% accuracy. Label/name/ List/recall (your content area)with 65-74% accuracy. Label/name/ List/recall (your content area)with 50-64% accuracy.
M
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Model      
O
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Outline/ Summarise/ Identify all essential feature of (a subject or content area). Describe the essential features of …… in detailed terms providing a summary of all features. Describe the essential features of …… in detailed terms. Describe the essential features of …… in general terms. List the essential features of …… in general terms.
Organise/ Plan/ Schedule Create an action plan Identify your proposed plan or strategy for (professional practice)listing and justifying the inclusion of all steps and factors. Identify alternate practices and evaluate how their inclusion would impact on the plan. Identify your proposed plan or strategy for (professional practice)listing and justifying the inclusion of all steps and factors. Identify your proposed plan or strategy for (professional practice)listing and explaining steps and factors to be included. Identify your proposed plan or strategy for (professional practice)listing steps and factors to be included.
P
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Predict (based on an action/environment or context) Predict the impacts of an action/environment/context on(an area of professional practice). Analyse the consequences of (the action/environment or context)and evaluate the relationships between your prediction and the cause. Identify and explain the consequences of (the action/environment or context)and explain the links between your prediction and the cause. Identify the consequences of (the action/environment or context)and explain the links between your prediction and the cause. Identify the consequences of (the action/environment or context).
R
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Recite Designed for oral or video assessment. Recitation delivers precise and accurate content unsupported by such as notes, palms cards, online script reader/teletext or other aids with (your descriptor as in criterion). Recitation delivers accurate content unsupported by such as notes, palms cards, online script reader/teletext or other aids with (your descriptor as in criterion). Recitation delivers accurate content with support such as notes, palms cards, online script reader/teletext or other aids with (your descriptor as in criterion). Recitation delivers content with support such as notes, palms cards, online script reader/teletext or other aids with (your descriptor as in criterion).
Relate (to tell) To give an account of or narrate a version. This will build towards the communication needs of AQF. Tell/write the story of the scenario describing and evaluating key aspects from more than one perspective. Tell/write the story of the scenario describing and explaining key aspects from more than one perspective. Tell/write the story of the scenario describing and explaining key aspects from a single perspective. Tell/write the story of the scenario describing key aspects from a single perspective.
Relate Identify the relationships between (elements of the subject information you want to see identified and described). Evaluate links between (subject content or information)describing and comparing effects on (practice). Analyse links between (subject content or information)describing and comparing effects. Explain links between (subject content or information). Identify and describe links between (subject content or information).
Review/recommend Reviews (a practice, action, environment, etc.)and make recommendations for change. Evaluate all factors/elements/components of the (action/environment/practice) and describe recommendations for improvements explaining your reasoning. Describe and analyse all factors/elements/components of the (action/environment/practice) and describe recommendations for improvements explaining your reasoning. Identify and describe all factors/elements/components of the (action/environment/practice) and list recommendations for improvements explaining your reasoning. Identify and describe all factors/elements/components of the (action/environment/practice) and list recommendations for improvements.
Research/investigate Research a thing/idea/problem. Identify and summarise the research problem clarifying its component parts and explaining its significance..  Identify and summarise the research problem clarifying its component parts and outlining its significance.  Identify and explain the research problem outlining its significance.  Identify and describe the research problem. 
Reflect      
S
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Specify Specify indicates a greater attention to detail than terms just as list or identify. Detail all components of (your identified situation)with examples, naming and classifying themes or groups. Detail all components of (your identified situation)with examples. Detail key components of (your identified situation)with examples. Detail key components of (your identified situation)
Solve problems  Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way. Analyse the problem, describe solutions supported by data, describing how the solution would solve the problem and offer and evaluate alternative solutions comparing and contrasting the different solutions and their impacts supported by examples from similar situations. Analyse the problem, describe solutions supported by data, describing how the solution would solve the problem and offer and describe alternative solutions comparing and contrasting the different solutions and their impact. Analyse the problem, listing solutions supported by data, explain how the solution would solve the problem and offer and describe alternative solutions. Analyse the problem, listing solutions supported by data, describing how the solution would solve the problem.
Survey Look closely at or examine (someone or something). List/draw/record all details of features of a situation or environment in a construct (i.e. a map, list) identifying all features and including a legend. List/draw/record details of features of a situation or environment in a construct (i.e. a map, list) identifying all features. List/draw/record broad features of a situation or environment in a construct (i.e. a map, list) identifying main features. List/draw/record broad features of a situation or environment in a construct (i.e. a map, list).
Synthesise To form (a material or abstract entity) by combining parts or elements. Analyse components/elements and blend the themes/ideas into a ideas as needed justifying your reasoning. Describe components/elements and blend the themes/ideas into a ideas as needed justifying your reasoning. Describe components/elements and blend the themes/ideas into a single idea justifying your reasoning. Describe components/elements and blend the themes/ideas into a single idea.
W
Verb Descriptor of the verb (use this to help develop your criteriaHDDICRPS
Write/Academic writing (from theALLAN rubrics)   Language features and structures are used to convey meaning effectively, clearly, unambiguously, concisely, and in a tone appropriate to the audience and purpose with no spelling, grammatical, or punctuation errors. Language features and structures are used to convey meaning effectively, clearly, unambiguously, and in a tone appropriate to the audience and purpose with minor spelling, grammatical, or punctuation errors. The meaning is apparent to the reader, although text contains some intrusive errors in spelling, grammar, word choice, and structure, and lacks clarity occasionally. The meaning is apparent to the reader with some effort, despite frequent errors in spelling, grammar, word choice, and structure.

The following rubrics are intended as examples only; you will always find room for improvement, therefore there is no such thing as a perfect example or exemplar. Where possible, an overview of the subject and its learning outcomes has been included, as well as the task description and criteria and standards, so you can see how all the elements combine to make a well-rounded assessment, as described in the previous sections of this site.

If you are looking for rubrics on Graduate Learning Outcomes, look at the GLOs page on Curriculum  Design, then link to each GLO to find more information about standards. Examples of standards for each GLO can found on the GLOs helpsite.

Rubrics by assessment type

Assessment typeExamples
Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography IKC100
Book Review Scholarly Book Review INF530
Briefing Paper Briefing Paper BIO327
Business Case Clinical Governance Business Case HSM406
Case Analysis Case Analysis: Ethics HSM405
Case Analysis: Safety, Regulation and Learning HSM405
Essay Essay IKC100
Digital Essay INF530
Exam MCQ and Problem Questions ACC322
Learning Sequence Emergent Literacy Project EML302
Designing a Learning Sequence EML306
Portfolio Professional Teaching Portfolio EPT329
Presentation Parent Tutor Program SPH106
Problem Solving Working With Clients Who Stutter SPH306
Report Network Literacy Evaluative Report INF532

Non-rubric example

Assessment typeExample
Reflection HLT311 Reflective Portfolio

Examples

Generic skills rubrics

The VALUE rubrics were developed by teams of faculty experts in the United States to articulate fundamental criteria and standards for 16 Essential Learning Outcomes. For more information see https://www.aacu.org/value.

Download all VALUE rubrics, including rubrics for:

  • Civic engagement
  • Creative thinking
  • Critical thinking
  • Ethical reasoning
  • Global learning
  • Information literacy
  • Inquiry and analysis
  • Integrative learning
  • Intercultural knowledge and competence
  • Foundations and skills for lifelong learning
  • Oral communication
  • Problem solving
  • Quantitative literacy
  • Reading
  • Teamwork
  • Written communication